You can deposit your data in dedicated data repositories. Some repositories, such as Zenodo, accept both publications and datasets. Data repositories allow you to provide persistent links to your datasets, so that they can be cited, linked and tracked. This also allows for version control. Just like publications, you can license your data to make clear what level of reuse you will allow for your dataset.

This is an example of data deposited in Zenodo, which was employed to perform the algorithm used in a scientific paper he title already tells what it is. Other metadata is about the authors, the publication date (note: of the data), the persistent identifier assigned by Zenodo, keywords, a grant identifier, the reference to the associated publication, and the access rights in the form of a Creative Commons license.

To find a suitable repository, see re3data and remember that several research funders prefer that you use a so-called Trustworthy - certified - Data Repository.  

See also: OpenAIRE Open Research Data Pilot Factsheet and

When you are not sure if all data can and should be deposited, these references may be useful:

Take a look at our webinar on Open Research Data in Horizon2020 and Zenodo