It launched in 2013, allowing researchers in any subject area to upload files up to 50 GB.
OpenAIRE is a European project supporting Open Science. On the one hand OpenAIRE is an network of dedicated Open Science experts promoting and providing training on Open Science.
On the other hand OpenAIRE is a technical infrastructure harvesting research output from connected data providers. OpenAIRE aims to establish an open and sustainable scholarly communication infrastructure responsible for the overall management, analysis, manipulation, provision, monitoring and cross-linking of all research outcomes.
This combination of knowledge and a pan-European Research Information platform enables us to provide services to researchers, research support organisations, funders and content providers such as:
And many more.
You can find an overview of trusted open access journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals.
A persistent identifier (PID) is a long-lasting reference to a document, file or other object. PIDs come in various forms, e.g. ARK, DOI, URN, PURL, Handles. Typically they are actionable too, i.e. you can type it into web browser to gain access.
Many repositories will assign PIDs on deposit.
In FP7, the European Commission had two Open Access policies: the EC Open Access Pilot and the ERC Guidelines for Open Access. These initiatives required that researchers provide open access to publications resulting from EC-funded research within a specified time period. The Open Access Pilot for publications applied for approximately 20% of the budget and 7 dedicated research areas.
In Horizon 2020, open access to scientific peer-reviewed publications has been anchored as an ‘underlying principle’, making it obligatory for all projects. In addition, as of 2017 H2020 projects are by default part of the Open Research Data Pilot, although it remains possible to opt-out.
General overview: Guidelines for Open Access to publications and data in H2020.
More information on the Open Research Data Pilot: Guidelines on FAIR data management in H2020.
Open Access is not an infringement on copyright, in fact making your work open access is perfectly legal.
Authors (or their institutions) own the original copyright to their research, but when publishing the original rights holders are often asked to transfer these rights to the publisher, so that the publisher sets the terms for providing open access. OpenAIRE encourages researchers to choose publishers who let them retain their author rights, so that immediate access can be provided. Ideally, an open license is applied to the work, so that access and reuse rights are clearly defined for every end-user. Creative Commons (such as CC BY 4.0 for publications and CC0 for data) or GNU (for software and code) are very suitable for this purpose. If the publisher does not standardly allow you to retain your rights, please consider negotiating this using with an addendum to the publication agreement.
Some publishers of Open Access journals ask for a transfer of copyrights but still provide immediate open access via the journal home page. If you have transferred your rights to the publisher and the article is published in a closed access journal but you still want to provide open access, you can do this through self-archiving. Sherpa/RoMEO offers a journal-by-journal overview of publisher self-archiving policies.
Making your research open access does not have to cost anything. By depositing your articles in a repository or finding an open access journal that does not charge APCs, you can provide open access for free.
However, under H2020 APCs are eligible costs for reimbursement for the duration of the grant agreement. You should already include costs for open access publishing in the budget of your project proposal.
APCs for finalized FP7 projects might also be eligible for funding through the FP7 post-grant Open Access publishing funds pilot.
Predatory publishers exploit the Open Access publishing model for their own profit. In some cases, predatory journals offer little or no peer review.
Generally, the same factors apply for selecting an Open Access journal as when choosing a traditional journal to publish your article.
It is not enough to add the publications to Dropbox, project websites, or academic social networks such as ResearchGate. It is recommended to choose an institutional or subject repository, as these have dedicated infrastructure allowing for long-term archiving and interoperability (for example, with OpenAIRE services). If you have trouble locating a suitable repository, contact your institutional librarian or your National Open Access Desk. You can also use the Zenodo repository, hosted by CERN, to deposit your publications and datasets free of charge.
To comply with the H2020 OA requirements, it is mandatory to ensure Open Access to all peer-reviewed publications resulting from H2020 funding. There are two ways you can provide Open Access:
|Submit a paper to a journal of your choice (you are not restricted to Open Access journals). Publishing costs (article processing charges) are eligible costs and can be reimbursed within the project period.|
|Deposit either the published manuscript or the final peer-reviewed version in an Open Access repository as soon as possible and at the latest upon publication. It is not enough to add the publications to Dropbox, project websites, or academic social networks such as ResearchGate. You could find a repository via registries: ROAR, OpenDOAR or via OpenAIRE. If you have trouble locating a suitable repository, contact your institutional librarian or your National Open Access Desk.|
|Acknowledge project funding in the metadata when uploading your article. This can be done by filling in the name of the action, project acronym, and/or grant number.|
|Ensure open access to the deposited publication — via the repository — at the latest: on publication if an electronic version is available for free via the publisher, or within six months of publication (twelve months for publications in the social sciences and humanities) in any other case. Check the publisher’s policy to determine which version you can upload and if an embargo period applies, see the Sherpa/Romeo database. An embargo period of 6 months (or 12 months for the social sciences and humanities) is acceptable. Ideally, as an author, you keep your author rights and apply a suitable open license. There are many options, such as Creative Commons. Please find more information about copyright and open access.|
In a nutshell, Open Science describes an on-going movement in the way research is performed, researchers collaborate, knowledge is shared, and science is organised. It affects the whole research cycle and its stakeholders, enhances science by facilitating more transparency, openness, networking and collaboration.
Open Science opens up scientific processes and products from all levels to everyone. As such it includes Open Access, Open Research Data, Open Methodology, Open Evaluation, Citizen Science.
See also Foster OS Taxonomy Tree (latest version here)
“How to License Research Data” guide from the DCC can helps you understand data licensing. This guide outlines the pros and cons of each approach e.g. the limitations of some Creative Commons licenses options.
"The Guidelines to the Rules on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Open Access to Research Data in Horizon 2020" point to CC-0 or CC-BY as a straightforward and effective way to make it possible for others to mine, exploit and reproduce the data (see p. 10).
You could also use the EUDAT licensing tool, more information on how to use it is here.
There is also this new clause on for health actions targeting public health emergencies [p. 70 - 71]
Under Horizon 2020, research data management costs are eligible for reimbursement for the duration of the grant agreement. To estimate RDM costs the University of Utrecht compiled a Data Management Cost Guide.
Making data FAIR ensures it can be found, understood and reused – by the creator as well as others.
Metadata is data providing information about data that makes findable, trackable and (re)usable.
Metadata can take many different forms, from free text to standardized, structured, machine-readable, extensible content. It is recommended to use a standard metadata format used in your field.
The concept of the free use of research data within the Pilot may conflict with data protection rules if such data contain personal data. Data protection rules are always applicable when personal data is processed. The term ‘processed’ is all-encompassing and any operation with personal data not qualifying as processing is almost unthinkable. Anonymisation of personal research data is the only effective solution to comply with both the data protection legislation and the requirements of the Open Research Data Pilot.
Οbtaining the consent of the data subject to use and exchange their data may seem an alternative. However, the Pilot demands that data be made openly available to the broad public and for all forms of reuse, whereas Directive 95/46/EC demands that the purpose for processing must be defined as precise as possible.
Remember that opting out of the Pilot is possible, provided that you justify in the Data Management Plan why the data or part of the data can’t be shared openly.
More information in this OpenAIRE briefing paper.
To make your research data open, you can deposit it in dedicated data repositories. Some repositories, such as Zenodo, accept both publications and datasets.
Data repositories allow you to provide persistent links to your datasets, so that they can be cited, linked and tracked. Just like other publications, you can license your data to define what level of reuse you allow.
OpenAIRE recommends to use the Creative Commons CC0 Waiver or CC BY licence for open access to data, as they allow maximum reusability and interoperability.
The first version of the DMP has to be delivered within the first 6 months of the project.
The DMP should be updated whenever significant changes occur, but as a minimum in time with the periodic evaluation/assessment and at the final review of the project. The project consortium can define a timetable for review in the DMP itself.
A Data Management Plan (DMP) is a formal document that specifies how research data will be handled both during and after a research project. It identifies key actions and strategies to ensure that research data are of a high quality, safe, sustainable and – where possible – accessible and reusable. More and more research funders require a DMP as part of the grant proposal process, or after funding has been approved. Creating a Data Management Plan for your project is always a good idea, even if it is not mandatory or if you will not be able to provide access to your data!
A DMP should be considered a ‘living’ document - it is ideally created before or at the start of a research project, but updated when necessary as the project progresses. Planning for data management is therefore not a one-off event, but a process.
The DMP template for H2020 projects provided by the EC includes:
DMPonline is an online tool that provides a number of templates representing the requirements of different funders and institutions, such as Horizon 2020. It also provides further guidance to understand and answer template-specific questions. Plans created with DMPonline can be easily shared with collaborators and exported in various formats.
Check out other DMPonline installations in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, South Africa and Spain here.
If you have trouble getting started with a DMP, ask your NOAD or your librarian.
There are three steps to comply with the Open Research Data Pilot:
|The first version of your DMP has to be submitted within six months. You should update your DMP whenever significant changes occur, but at a minimum for periodic evaluation and at the final review. See our faq on creating a DMP for more tips.|
Find a research data repository
|Find a data repository that matches your data needs and discipline. An overview of repositories can be found at Re3data. If there is no subject-specific data repository available, catch-all repositories such as Zenodo, provide a good alternative. If you have trouble locating a suitable data repository, contact your local NOAD.|
Deposit your data
|Deposit the data and the information necessary to access and use it, i.e. metadata and tools/instruments, in the data repository. Attach an open licence, such as a creative commons license, to the datasets that can be made openly available.|
Each project proposal will need to consider taking part in the Pilot, but it remains possible to opt-out of at any stage: during the application phase or the grant agreement preparation (GAP) phase or after signing the grant agreement.
Moreover, projects individually define which data the Pilot covers for their specific context. A project can choose to only make a subset of the data available, or they can initially plan to make certain data available but then change their decision mid-project, for example if they discover there's a commercial application and plan to file for a patent.
The key principle to bear in mind is to be "as open as possible, as closed as necessary." If you plan to keep some datasets closed, you need to justify these decisions in your Data Management Plan.
As of 2017, participating in the pilot is the default option for all Horizon 2020 projects, though opting out remains possible. If your project started before that date, check Article 29.3 in your grant agreement.
|Projects started in 2014-2016||From 2017|
|Limited ORD Pilot||Extended ORD Pilot|
|Limited ORD pilot: some areas participate: Check Article 29.3||Participating is default option for all projects|
|Possibility to opt-out but also to opt-in on voluntary basis for other areas||Possibility to opt-out|
The Open Research Data Pilot of the European Commission enables open access and reuse of research data generated by Horizon 2020 projects. There are two main pillars to the Pilot: developing a Data Management Plan (DMP) and providing open access to research data, if possible.
The conditions you have to adhere to, are:
The Pilot applies to:
Data management costs are eligible for reimbursement during the duration of the project, and can be claimed under the conditions defined in the grant agreement.
You can find more detailed informations in the EC's Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020.
Open Research Data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone - subject only, at most, to the requirement to credit the curator and share under the same license.Open access to research data fits within the Open Science paradigm, situated within a context of ever greater transparency, accessibility and accountability. The main goals of these developments are to lower access barriers to research outputs, to speed up the research process and to increase the quality, integrity and longevity of the scholarly record.
OpenAIRE uses a 'very limited' set of funder-related metadata, no personal details are needed, e.g. no personal names or budget details. The information will be picked up automatically when funders provide the following:
OpenAIRE provides a publication reporting tool that is available on the project landing page in the portal. For each project, OpenAIRE compiles a list of scientific outputs (publications and data) that can be viewed and exported in csv or html format.
Using this aggregated project output – identifying title, author, year, access mode and permanent link – you can easily fill the corresponding information in the progress or final report of your project.
If you can’t find all your publications in the list, you can easily claim and link them to your projects manually.
OpenAIRE does not host content itself, but aggregates publications and data from third-party sources.
If you have deposited your publication or dataset in a repository, you should contact the administrator to update metadata.
If you haven't deposited the publication or dataset yourself, or if you don't know how the record ended up on the OpenAIRE portal, please contact the OpenAIRE helpdesk.
OpenAIRE uses the OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative’s Protocol for Metadata Harvesting OAI-PMH) interoperability protocol, which consists of a set of rules and methods that standardize the access to content of repositories. OpenAIRE compliant repositories are harvested once a week.
By depositing your work in a repository and providing your project information in the metadata, project information and related publications and data will automatically become visible in the OpenAIRE portal.
On OpenAIRE, each project has a dedicated page featuring:
In order to provide content to OpenAIRE, journals and repositories have to be registered as technically compliant with OpenAIRE.
To be registered as OpenAIRE compliant, you must ensure that:
Repository systems like DSpace, EPrints and Open Journal Systems are OpenAIRE compliant.
If your repository is not compliant, the deposited publications will not be 'harvested' automatically through the OpenAIRE portal, limiting the visibility of your project and access to OpenAIRE’s services.
The OpenAIRE portal is designed to measure compliance with the EC's and ERC's Open Science policies and pilots. When these conditions are applicable to your project, OpenAIRE is there to make reporting as easy as possible. While non-compliant repositories are still being indexed through OpenAIRE, the visibility and accuracy of project files and publication metadata can be lower.
The first time a funding request arrives for publishing a monograph, edited volume or conference proceedings with a publisher that hasn't been funded before, a list of five questions is sent out to the book author/editor so that they're jointly answered by the author and the publisher. These technical requirements must be met in order for a funding request for a book to be accepted. Besides this, it's always useful to provide a link to any Open Access book that the publisher may have published previously in order to double-check the publishing standards that were applied to it.
Publishers in the list below have already been checked for compliance with the technical requirements, so a funding request for publishing a book with them would be directly accepted if the standard eligibility criteria are met. There are of course many other eligible book publishers, but before agreeing to fund a specific book we would first need to check whether they meet these specific requirements. When a book publisher is not featured in this list, the project reviewer will ask for a confirmation of the publisher that they will meet our technical requirements.
Yes, as part of the FP7’s IDEAS resp. PEOPLE program they are eligible for reimbursement of post-grant OA publishing fees, provided all other requirements are being complied with.
If the processing charge exceeds this amount, you are encouraged to notify your publisher about this funding scheme and ask for a discount to meet with this funding cap.
This funding cap has not been chosen arbitrary, and is in line with many international OA funding schemes.
If a lowering of the fee is not possible, researchers may claim the maximum available funding from the Pilot and consider using other funds to cover the remainder. A specific invoicing procedure will need to be applied in this case, either by having the invoice split between the Pilot and the institution, or by paying for the full fee upfront from the institution and subsequently issuing a reimbursement invoice to OpenAIRE limited to our cap of €2000/€6000. The submission dashboard offers the possibility to indicate split funding.
Make sure that the bank information entered in the submission form is your institution's and not the publisher (as they have already been paid)!
Regardless of whether the invoice has already been paid, a funding request should always be submitted through the central system for any payment to be made from the FP7 Post-Grant OA Pilot.
Submissions will only be approved when a (correct) invoice is attached to it.
Ideally, you request from the publisher that they address the invoice to OpenAIRE, using the following billing information:
Invoices and requests for reimbursement should always mention our VAT number, but can under no circumstance contain VAT.
If the publisher already issued an invoice which has not been paid yet, a simple request to update the invoice with the ARC billing information is usually sufficient. Simply attach the updated version to the record. (see example below)
If your institution has already paid the invoice and you require a reimbursement, OpenAIRE needs a combined pdf document with the original invoice and a 'request for reimbursement' from your institution to Athena Research Centre (same information as above). Make sure that the bank information entered in the submission form is your institution's and not the publisher (as they have already been paid)!
Regardless of whether the invoice has already been paid, a funding request should always be submitted through the central system for any payment to be made from the FP7 Post-Grant OA Pilot.
The maximum funding is 2000€ for research articles and 6000€ for books.This funding cap has not been chosen arbitrary, and is in line with many international OA funding schemes.
The system will convert the amount to €, if the invoice states another currency.
If the processing charge exceeds the maximum amount, you are encouraged to inform your publisher about this funding scheme and ask for a discount to meet the funding cap.
If the discount cannot be provided, researchers may claim the maximum available funding from the Pilot and consider using other funds to cover the difference. This case requires a specific invoicing process where either the invoice is split between the Pilot and the institution, or fully paid upfront by the institution, which can then request reimbursement from OpenAIRE. Split funding can be indicated through the submission dashboard.
The Pilot supports publications in full open access journals and monographs with publishers that have agreed to our technical requirements (lSee also FAQ "What are the technical requirements for book publishers?")
The Pilot provides an additional instrument to make FP7 project research results Open Access. It does not affect authors' freedom to choose which way their project publications should be made Open Access.
The Pilot does not support publications in so-called hybrid journals. Hybrid journals are journals which do not offer all their content Open Access, but only the articles where a specific fee has been paid for the purpose, while keeping the rest of them under a subscription model. Usually, these journals offer authors the choice to publish either Open Access or in the traditional subscription model. The Pilot does not support this type of journals as they generate revenue from both the article processing charges and the subscription fees.
The Pilot is not aimed at retroactively reimbursing fees for papers that have been published already. The acceptance date of the manuscript should be after the project has ended and up to 2 years after the project official end date.
Ideally, a submission is made upon acceptance of the manuscript and already accompanied by a correct invoice. It is acceptable to apply before an invoice is attached, the status will then be ‘conditionally approved’ until an invoice is provided.
A record will not be queued for payment if there is no invoice attached or if the metadata is not complete.
If you have any questions about timing, contact the Pilot administration:
An account needs to be made at https://postgrantoapilot.openaire.eu
After this, a simple step-by-step submission system is in place, in which you will be asked to identify yourself, the project and the publication metadata (either manually or via a persistent identifier). Then you will be asked to identify the journal and/or publisher, and you can attach the invoice and bank information.
The Pilot administration reviews all submitted publications and grants them one of the following statuses: ‘approved’, ‘conditionally approved’ or ‘rejected’.
The submitter will always get notified of the status. The corresponding author always get a notification. The project coordinator will also be notified, in case there are any objections from their part they have the chance to let the Pilot administration know.
To be eligible for the post-grant OA Pilot funding, the following points have to be fulfilled:
The EC has launched the FP7 Post Grant Open Access Pilot to fund OA publications for finalized FP7 projects through OpenAIRE.
The European Commission identified the need to consider "whether and under what conditions open access publication fees can be reimbursed after the end of the grant agreement"1,2. As a consequence, the Pilot to support Open Access publishing for post-grant FP7 projects has been initiated. This does not affect authors' freedom to choose which way their project publications should be made Open Access.
The first phase of the pilot, set to end April 30th, 2017, was extended for another 10 months. This means that the pilot will continue until February 28th, 2018. The conditions and eligibility criteria remain the same and will be applied for the whole duration of the Pilot.The FP7 Post Grant Open Access Pilot is organised by OpenAIRE, and the Pilot administration can be reached at .
For some journals the OA publication fees may exceed the funding cap set by the Pilot. In this case, researchers may claim the maximum available funding from the Pilot and consider using other funds to cover the remainder. A specific invoicing procedure will need to be applied in this case, either by having the invoice split between the Pilot (€2,000) and the institution, or by paying for the full APC fee upfront from the institution and issuing a €2,000 reimbursement invoice to OpenAIRE (see an example reimbursement invoice here).
Invoices issued to Athena Research Centre should not bear any VAT charges, so it's very important to always include ARC's VAT number in them: EL999723442.