Croatia is part of the European Research Area (ERA) and supports open science through different open access initiatives. There is no national open access strategy in place, but numerous bottom-up initiatives at national level, making Croatia a vibrant OA environment. Open access movement started in Croatia in 1997 with the national bibliography CROSBI with the OA repository functions. Since then, several OA national initiatives started like Who’s Who in Science in Croatia, HRČAK repository of the Croatian OA journals, ŠESTAR repository of the scientific equipment, DABAR infrastructure for OA institutional repositories, etc.
There are nine public universities (Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik, Pula and Slavonski Brod) and 30 public and private polytechnic institutes , with more than 180.000 students enrolled. Research in Croatia is conducted also by 25 public institutes and six technology centers. The largest research institute in Croatia is Ruđer Bošković Institute with more than 550 researchers. There approximately 11.500 active researchers in Croatia.
There are three public bodies that play a major role in the consolidation of the research at the national level in terms of:
Croatian Ministry of Science and Education (MSE) is the main national policy-maker, responsible for planning, funding and the research assessment. Advisory body of the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education is the National Council for Science, Higher Education and Technological Development (NCSHETD), responsible for the development of science. Expert body of NCSHETD is the Agency for science and Higher Education which proposes criteria for budgetary financing of scientific activity and higher education. The dialog among national key-players concerning open science agenda should be continuous.
Croatia implements several instruments, programs and policies with the aim of developing a substantial and strategic research policy, such as Strategy of education, science and technology (in Croatian), Croatian Research and Innovation Infrastructures Roadmap and Strategy for Fostering Innovation of the Republic of Croatia 2014-2020, aiming to provide recommendations for the establishment of a comprehensive R&I environment, to strengthen the Croatian national innovation system (NIS) and provide an efficient framework to foster the competitiveness of Croatian R&D and economy in general, through innovation and technological development. There are some mentions and future plans, but in general Croatian strategic documents are not considering open science agenda and open access to scientific publications and research data. Croatian Science Foundation (CSF) is central institution for funding competitive research projects since 2009. It provides support to scientific, higher education and technological programs and projects, fosters international cooperation, and helps the realization of scientific programs of special interest in the field of fundamental, applied and developmental research. CSF also develops and implements various sets of financial instruments for research career, including post-doc fellowships.
Other funder is Croatian Agency for SMEs, Innovations and Investments (HAMAG-BICRO) was founded by the Croatian Government in 1998, with the aim of supporting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, improving the innovation process and encouraging investments. It is a central institution in the national innovation system for supporting innovation and technology advancement. The Agency’s main objective is reflected in the strategic creation of a unique system that would provide support to entrepreneurs through all development stages of operation starting from research and development of an idea to commercialization and placement on the market.
More details on R&I system in Croatia for 2015, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for EU policies can be find in RIO Country Report 2015 Croatia.
Data on Croatian research output related to the researchers, organizations, and projects are available via the Croatian Scientific Bibliography CROSBI and used for institutional and research evaluation.Research libraries can offer support to researchers mostly regarding open access to publications and research data and in building and managing certain open science infrastructures. Regarding open access to articles, researchers can comply with Article 29.2 of the H2020 grant agreement by depositing into one of the Croatian OpenAIRE compatible repositories.
There is a strong development of the OA environment in Croatia. Several academic and research institutions initiate different activities at the national level concerning open access to the scientific information:
Croatia takes part in the OpenAIRE Advance project (the National Open Access Desk at Ruđer Bošković Institute, contact Jadranka Stojanovski).
There are no digital repositories for open research data at the moment
The Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb was a partner in the CLARIN project – a pan-European effort to create a language resource infrastructure for researchers in humanities and social sciences.
The Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research IEF, as the national coordinating institution for DARIAH-ERIC in Croatia, is currently working on expanding the network of partners and providing a solid foundation for the development of digital infrastructure for the arts and humanities.
There is no national policy on open science or open access to scientific publications and research data in place in Croatia, following the Commission Recommendation of 17. 7. 2012 on access to and preservation of scientific information, Guidelines to the Rules on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Open Access to Research Data in Horizon 2020 and other documents.
The document Strategy of education, science and technology (in Croatian) consider open educational materials and open access to scientific information as the strategic orientation for science and education in Croatia in the future. Also the Croatian Research and Innovation Infrastructures Roadmap mention “promotion of open access to research data, especially data funded from public sources”, and “open access to scientific and research data for all” members of the scientific and research community (researchers, teachers and students) in Croatia.
In 2012 a group of representatives consisting of university faculty and research staff, librarians and students presented the document Croatian Open Access Declaration which has been supported by ministries, HE and research institutions, and many individuals from Croatia and abroad. Croatian OA Declaration invites “the state administration, headed by the ministry responsible for science, as well as scientific and educational institutions, organisations, professional associations, and all the others involved in gathering and publishing scientific information to act decisively and in coordination in order to store all the Croatian scientific information in Open Access form.“ The national contact point for the open access to the scientific information is Jadranka Stojanovski, appointed by the Croatian Ministry of science and education.
Croatian repositories for research outcomes enable collection, storage and making scientific publications available to the public. All repositories using DABAR infrastructure are compatible with the OpenAIRE Guidelines. This means that researchers can comply with Article 29.2 of the H2020 grant agreement regarding open access to articles with depositing into Croatian repositories.
Twelve repositories are included into OpenAIRE portal:
There are seven institutional repositories using other types of software, mostly ePrints:
DiZbi.HAZU (Digital Collection of the Croatian Academy of Science and Arts)
There are no significant advancements related to the open research data. The only document supporting open access to the research data is the Open Access Declaration initiative (2012), pursuing the goal of broadest possible access to digital publication and research data. Although the Declaration was signed by 20 state ministries, there are no funders’ or institutions’ policies mandating open access to the research data.
Three institutions are actively engaged in the open research data issues:- Ruđer Bošković Insitute (RBI) – as a NOAD in the OpenAIRE project RBI is providing researchers with necessary support and education related to the open research data enabled via ZENODO or other disciplinary repositories. RBI institutional repository FULIR has been upgraded to provide research data deposition, but these activities are still in the early phase.- Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Zagreb, participating in the open research data project like SERSCIDA (finished) and SEEDS (running) and organizing events on open research data.- University of Zagreb Computing Centre SRCE – developing DABAR infrastructure for the institutional repositories, which will enable the deposition of the research data in the future.
The Croatian Ministry of Science and Education supports gold OA, and subsidize Croatian OA journals (OA is the mandatory condition to get subsidy). In 2017 there were 187 gold OA journals subsidized by the Ministry. Other Croatian scholarly, professional and popular journals are also in open access. All together more than 450 OA journals are available in open access at HRČAK repository, which is the biggest national repository of OA journals in EU.
Negotiations for “big deals” has been done by the Croatian National and University Library. The Electronic Resources Portal for the Croatian Academic and Scientific Community enables access to databases with a nationally funded European Social Fund (ESF) grant through the project Increasing access to electronic sources of scientific and expert information - e-Sources. APC was included in the negotiation process with some publishers, but unsuccessfully.
There is an initiative of the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education to promote Open Educational Resources (OER) and OA books important for the national curriculum.
University of Zadar, in the collaboration with the University of Zagreb and Ruđer Bošković Institute, organize annual international conference on the new trends in scholarly publishing in the context of open science PUBMET. All materials of the previous conferences are available at http://pubmet.unizd.hr.
RBI Centre for scientific information organizes regularly workshop on open access as a part of the Open Access Week. Regular KEKS workshops are organized, which include a lot of materials on open science and open access.Since March 1999 RBI Centre for scientific information organizes Library Colloquia on the regular bases. Lectures include many topics on open access, open source, and other open science topics.Ruđer Bošković Institute is opening its doors to the general public and with RBI Open Day(s) open science has been promoted through lectures, workshops, games, stories, etc.Workshops on Open Science are part of the Centre for the Continuous Education of Librarians (National and University Library).Papers and presentations on open science and open access are stored in the FULIR RBI institutional repository.Information on open science and all aspects of open access will be soon available at the national Open Science Croatia portal.
Croatia has 2 major funding agencies which are listed here:
Croatia has 1 major funding agency integrated in OpenAIRE.