France has played an important role in the European open access movement, particularly in the launch of the Berlin declaration, a cooperation between the Max Planck Society and people from the CNRS. The research institutions (CNRS, INSERM in particular) played a major role in early 2000, especially with the launch of the HAL open archive in 2001.
France also set forth an important initiative regarding open access journals with the Revues.org platform founded in 1999 and specialized in Humanities and Social Sciences. It is operated by a joint service unit bringing together the CNRS, two universities (Aix-Marseille and Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse) and a grande école (EHESS). Revues.org hosts in 2017 more than 465 journals, 192 of them being fully open access.Universities and grandes écoles joined the open access movement gradually and it is worth noting that some universities have been working on open access publishing (Nice with the database Revel) and Open Archives (in Toulouse for instance) since 2003. After the signature of a national agreement in 2006 aiming to foster OA, some universities and grandes écoles established an institutional open archive. In 2017, 95 of them do have an institutional repository. Couperin is also an actor of this movement through a working group focused on open access. The movement is progressively growing and the Jussieu call shows for example a real concern of the research community on OA issues.
On July 4 2018, Frédérique Vidal, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, launched the national open science plan.
The plan is centered around three key commitments:
The National Plan for Open Science are part of France’s international commitment, and aims at making 100% of French scientific publications in open access.
In October 2016, the French Law for a Digital Republic Act (LOI n° 2016-1321 du 7 octobre 2016 pour une République numérique) came into force. One article is of specific concern for scholarly communication, as it relates directly to open access/open data. Article 30 creates a new right for researchers where authors have the right to archive an OA copy, even if they have granted the copyright to a publisher.Details can be found here. Some national OA agreements have been signed or are being discussed with French and major global publishers (see below).
A nation-wide effort, coordinated by the ABES, to mandate depositing of ETD has been made. This initiative is supported by a dissemination portal for French thesis: http://www.theses.fr/. Furthermore TEL, developed by HAL, gives access to PhD thesis via self-archiving: https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/. A decree makes the submission of the electronic thesis mandatory for all institutions from 1 September 2016.
HAL, Dissemin and Couperin have worked together to enable Dissemin to be compatible with HAL. Dissemin detects papers behind paywalls and invites authors to upload them in an open repository in one click.
Every two years Couperin together with national stakeholders organise a national event on open science to advance OA policies and display best practices. Two dedicated websites gather the programmes and presentations that have been made. E.g.:
The Jussieu Call for Open science and bibliodiversity was launched in october 2017 and has already been signed by many major institutions.
I-Revues: electronic OA journals of the INIST-CNRS
OpenEdition: The portal’s mission is to promote open-access academic electronic publishing (465 journals, 4616 books).Episciences.org: its purpose is to promote the emergence of epi journals, namely open access electronic journals taking their contents from preprints deposited in open archives such as arXiv or HAL, that have not been published elsewhere.REVEL: electronic OA journals of the University of Nice
MathOA: some French researchers are part of the project.
A project of books liberation is under discussion between OpenEdition, Knowledge Unlatched and Couperin.
Dedicated OA website for researchers: easy to read information, FAQ on the digital Republic Law.
Doranum: dedicated website for researchers for research data: synthetic and clear information on research data.
DMP OPIDoR helps French researchers to write Data Management Plans.
Cat OPIDoR: wiki on the services dedicated to research data.