National Open Access Desk

  • Anja Oberlaender |

    Lena Dreher |
    • Very few countries offer such a diverse higher education landscape as Germany: Germany currently numbers 390 Higher Education and over 250 public research institutions. Most of the higher education institutions are financed publicly (240), but there is also a large number of private universities which used to play only a subordinate role but gain more and more importance.

      Currently major changes are taking place in German higher education: The Federal Government and the federal states initiated the Excellence Initiative to promote competition between universities. A large number of new ideas and projects have already been realized as a result of the Excellence Initiative. Moreover, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) released its Open Access Strategy entitled "Open Access in Germany" on September 20th 2016 which contains a clear commitment to the principles of open access and open science.

      Support and landscape

      • The major research funder in Germany is the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) which has tied open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts scientists participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access. Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.” The DFG also offers a number of funding schemes aimed at enabling open access publication (Open Access Publishing Programme) and the development and implementation of open access infrastructure (Infrastructure for Electronic Publications and Digital Scholarly Communication Programme).

        Other funders like the Volkswagen Foundation (VolkswagenStiftung) support OA publishing in financial terms (see this overview at Beside nationally funded research, European research projects are gaining more and more importance in the last years.Another key player in the German research landscape are the big research institutions such as the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and the Leibniz Association. They actively support OA projects and initiatives.The state-of-the-art of the OA movement in Germany is described in several publications, for example the book "Open Access. Chancen und Herausforderungen" published 2007 by the Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission (also available in English: "Open Access. Opportunities and Challenges - a Handbook." European Commission / German Commission for UNESCO, 2008), and the special issue “Open Access”, Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, Vol. 54 (2007), Nr. 4/5 (in German).

      National initiatives

      • There are several projects in the field of Open Access. The most central ones are the following:
        • Information platform The main aim of the platform is to provide detailed information about open access for scholars and other stakeholders. For example, scholars from different disciplines can find information about the OA culture in their respective communities, about OA journals and repositories etc. Moreover, information is presented from different user perspectives: authors, librarians, OA publishers, institutions running OA repositories and so on.
        • Open-Access.Network: The platform will be developed into a new infrastructure for information and networking. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding the Germany-wide joint project The project creates a new information and networking service that will activate existing initiatives and network them across regions as well as sustainably improve the exchange within science on Open Access. Information on Open Access will be made available centrally and reliably across disciplines. New, freely accessible material, continuing education and training programmes qualify actors and multipliers in science and libraries and impart skills in practical, organizational and legal issues. All six project partners have been very active contributors to the Open Access community for many years: Communication, Information, Media Centre (KIM) at the University of Konstanz (project manager), Open Access Office Berlin at Freie Universität Berlin, Helmholtz Open Science Office at Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam – Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) in Hannover, university library Bielefeld and university library Göttingen.
        • Network of certified Open Access repositories and related projects: In order to increase the worldwide perception and effect of the German Research contribution, the project "Network of certified Open Access Repositories” OA-Network seeks to intensify the national networking of repositories. It aims to virtually integrate all document and publication services with a DINI certificate and to increase the number of DINI certified repositories. These certified repositories easily blend in overall networks such as the DRIVER pan-European repository infrastructure (Repositories Infrastructure Vision for European Research).  Networking will not only be pushed forward organisationally, but also technically and infrastructurally.

      OpenAIRE statistics

      2659892 OA publications in 347 repositories
    • National policy

      In the federated environment of Germany, strong competition among universities and research institutions is stimulating - but also challenging – to the development of a national Open Access policy. At present, there is no national OA mandate, but some OA statements/policies of German universities and research institutions/organizations are in place. The most prominent statement in use is the 2003 “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities”, signed by approx. 250 international research institutions/organizations (with >30 from Germany, including the German Rectors’ Conference which includes 258 universities and other HE institutions; the Max Planck Society, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association and the Leibniz Association).

      Institutional policy

      As of 2020, 72 German universities and other higher education institutions had a published OA policy, according to ROARMAP.

      All of the 4 big research associations have open access policies:

      Funder policy

      The major research funder in Germany, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), has tied open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts scientists participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access. Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.”

      In 2016, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) also published an Open Access strategy. On an information page on its website,  the ministry expresses its support for the strengthening of Open Access. A BMBF directive on the funding of Open Access entered into force in June 2017.

    • Key networks and aggregators

      • Many universities and research institutions in Germany run an institutional or subject-based repository, some of these centrally managed by umbrella organizations. Today, there are over 200 OA repositories in Germany: 282 OAI repositories according to OpenDOAR, plus those listed by DINI (for more information about DINI see below) and OAI service providers (like BASE and OAIster). The majority of German repositories are based on the OPUS software, followed by DSpace, MyCore, FEDORA and Eprints as well as locally developed software options. Over 40 repositories operate on platforms that are centrally managed by federal state library networks in Cologne, Berlin, Jena, Munich, and Constance. The most relevant organization in Germany for supporting a national repository infrastructure is the German Initiative for Network Information (DINI). It has initiated several projects to support the technical development of a network of digital repositories and actively encourages the process of DINI certification. The certification process evaluates and improves the quality of publication services by referring to international standards and quality criteria. In consequence, the process improves data quality and conformity to enable services and the networking of repositories. Together with the DARE guidelines, the DINI certificate served as a basis for the DRIVER Guidelines for Content Providers.

      Data repositories

      Much like with literature repositories, the German data repository landscape is complex and highly federated. Many universities and research institutions run their own data repositories. According to re3data there are over 400 data repositories in Germany. In April 2017, the German Council for Scientific Information Infrastructures (RfII) issued a discussion paper which recommends the establishment of a national research data infrastructure (NFDI) which is meant to link, augment and complement already existing infrastructures.

      National publishing initiatives

      According to the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) there are 265 German OA journals. Some of these journals are hosted by OA journal platforms, but most are run individually by research institutions and learned societies. Important platforms which host OA Journals are:  Copernicus Publications, Digital Peer Publishing NRW, German Medical Science, Living Reviews. A new intiative in open access publishing world is Open Access 2020 which builds on the Berlin Declaration and calls for the large-scale transition of scholarly journals from a subscription model to an open access model. Special responsibility in this regard is accorded to research libraries. Initial signatories from Germany include the German Research Foundation (DFG), the German Rectors’ Conference (HRK), the German Council of Science and Humanities (WR), the Max Planck Society (MPG), the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association, the Leibniz Association, the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. The Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) set up a post-grant fund for open access publications in 2017 which will provide financial aid for researchers who wish to make a publication openly available after their BMBF-funded research project has ended.

      National agreements with publishers

      Project DEAL: Project DEAL is an initiative by the Alliance of Science Organisations in Germany. Its goal is to negotiate and conclude nationwide license agreements with major academic publishers for their entire range of ejournals. Changes in prices and availability of content shall be made to reduce costs and use institutions’ financial capacities more efficiently as well as expand access for academics to academic literature including some sort of Open Access.

      The involvement of 268 German universities and research institutions as well as state libraries raises hopes that new contracts will be negotiated and changes made. The negotiations started in 2016 and concentrate on the three biggest publishers on the German market: Elsevier, Springer Nature and Wiley. As press releases state, negotiations with Elsevier prove to be unsuccessful. Although around 300 institutions have cancelled their contracts with Elsevier, no consensus could be reached so far and negotiations have been temporarily adjourned in July 2018. In January 2019, a deal with Wiley has been achieved resulting in the first Publish and Read (PAR) contract with German institutions. The PAR fee is calculated yearly on the basis of publications per institution and allows all submitting corresponding authors of participating institutions to publish open access (generally under CC-BY) in all of Wiley’s ejournals at no further cost, as well as a 20% discount on Article Processing Charges for Wiley’s gold open access journals. The contract also includes perpetual access to all 1.700 Wiley ejournals. Very similar conditions apply to the contract with Springer Nature published in January 2020. Since then it is possible for all submitting corresponding authors of participating institutions to publish open access under CC-BY in almost all of Springer Nature's ejournals with a PAR fee paid by the insitutions. The second part of the contract, addressing publications in Springer Nature's gold open access journals at 20% discount will be valid from August 2020. 

      Source and further information:

      OA books

      No information available.

    • Information can be found on the central German open access website which also lists current local news & events as well as on the central German RDM information page
    • Funding Agencies

      Germany has 1 major funding agency which is listed here:

      Integrated in OpenAIRE

      Germany has 1 funding agency integrated in OpenAIRE.

      Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (21.796 projects)

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