Research in Greece is carried out primarily by Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and Research Centers (RC). HEIs are independent public law bodies comprising what is referred to in Greek as AEI (universities, polytechnic schools and the school of fine arts) and TEI (technological educational institutions, and the higher institute of pedagogical and educational training). Currently there are 22 AEIs and 14 TEIs with 268 and 168 departments respectively. Research is also carried out in research centres, supervised by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology (GSRT) of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. A number of specialized research centres are nonetheless supervised by other ministries. In addition to the above, research is carried out within other organisations like public and private hospitals, museums, private companies, etc. albeit to a smaller extent when compared to universities and research centers. The GSRT, the main public funder, supports the activities of research organisations and productive sectors of the economy through competitive funding.
OpenAIRE National Open Access Desk (NOAD) in Greece provides guidance and support to researchers in receipt of Horizon 2020 funding as well as to all other interested parties like policy makers interested in adopting OS/OA policies, repository managers about compatibility with OpenAIRE guidelines and making their content more visible, research funders on content aggregation and monitoring of results.
Athena Research and Innovation Center supports the development and adoption of Open Access and Open Science policies in Greece. It also assists in engaging key national stakeholders with an ultimate goal of delivering a national Open Science picture where responsibilities and workflows are well diffused and collaboration is achieved and ensured in the long run. Moreover, ATHENA RC contributes to the organisation of trainings and webinars to inform about legal and technical aspects of OA and OS that the OpenAIRE network has identified and dealt with throughout its years of operation.
HEALLink plays an important role in the national ecosystem as it supports Green Open Access activities for pre-prints deposited and preserved in institutional repositories. Through big deals achieved with publishers they ensure accessibility to a number of scientific databases, while HEALLink is also fighting against eliminating Gold Open Access issues, such as the double-dipping phenomenon. In doing so, they have been advocating for OA with the most recent achievement being the signature of the Declaration on Open Access in Greece, including great support coming from the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, Prof. Dr. Kostas Gavroglou.
In 2017, the General Secretariat of Research and Technology (GSRT) established a Working Group (WG) of consultative nature to support GSRT with the development of a national strategy on Open Science. Members of the WG include all major national stakeholders in the OS/OA ecosystem. The WG’s mission is:
- To map the current situation at national and European level and the necessary measure for formulating a national OS strategy aligned with the ERA roadmap and other related documents
- To present to the GSRT proposals regarding the potential involvement of other stakeholders at a later stage
Greece has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet. However, Law 4310/2014 supports open access to publicly funded research.
However, the Greek Law already supports Open Data activities with provisions for public bodies’ infrastructures and introduction of Creative Commons licenses to some outputs through the Law N. 3979/2011 on E-government and relevant regulations with amendments up to Law N. 4483/2017 and Law N. 4305/2014 on Open Access to and Further Use of Public Sector Documents, Information and Data with amendments up to Law N. 4483/2017.
Article 4 of Law N. 4485/2017 on Organisation and operation of higher education, arrangements for research and other provisions, mentions “open resources” as one of its mission without however specifying the type of resources.
Open Access policies are at a nascent stage in Greece. Currently two HEIs, the Technical University of Crete (TUC) and the International Hellenic University (IHU) have adopted an Open Access policy, following the 2012 COM on access to and preservation of scientific information. TUC’s policy (adopted in 2014) encourages researchers to deposit all research outputs (journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings and technical reports) at the institutional repository and to provide open access upon publication or as soon as possible (respecting publishers’ policies). The deposit of PhD and master theses is mandatory. Researchers are also encouraged to deposit research data at the institutional or other appropriate data repository. The policy states that deposited items will be taken into consideration for evaluation purposes, while it also foresees a compliance monitoring mechanism. IHU’s policy (effective from February 2015) is by contrast to that of TUC foresees mandatory deposit. Open access is given at the time of deposit or as soon as possible. The policy encourages researchers to deposit their research data. The policy also foresees that compliance will be monitored.
Public funders have not yet adopted Open Access policies. Nonetheless, researchers funded under the “Diversity, inequalities and social inclusion” programme of the EEA financial mechanism (the GSRT being the programme operator) are expected to provide open access to their research outputs. Similarly, OA to research outputs may be provisioned through other regional funding streams like EPAnEk. The GSRT is planning to include in its future calls open access requirements similar to those of Horizon 2020.
National Archive of PhD Theses - The National Archive of PhD Theses provides access to the PhD theses from all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Greece as well as PhD theses awarded to Greek scholars by foreign HEIs and certified by the Hellenic NARIC.
The National Documentation Centre of Greece (EKT) is the organization responsible, by law, for the collection, development and maintenance of the National Archive of PhD Theses.
OpenArchives.gr – provides access to scientific content. OpenArchives has been developed by EKT.
SearchCulture – aggregates Greek digital cultural content produced by institutions through public funding
According to OpenDOAR there are 36 institutional repositories and digital libraries in Greece covering almost all academic libraries research outputs and digital material, from which 6 are compatible with OpenAIRE thus offering greater visibility of Greek research in the European area. These are:
National data repositories are included in Re3Data. However, these repositories and data centers do not exclusively hold and preserve Greek research outputs, but they are rather part of European or International infrastructure networks. CLARIN-EL for language resources and SODANET for social sciences are the only examples that seem to better fit in this category.
Within big and domain-specific research communities (eg ELIXIR-GR, APOLLONIS etc), services, tools and sometimes repositories have been developed to better manage, store and preserve generated data. Those are being currently used by the respective researchers and research communities in Greece together with more interdisciplinary ones (eg EUDAT CDI). GRNET, the Greek Research and Technology Network offers cloud computing and has developed services such as AAI for authentication, Handles for identification while of the relatively recent developments are Okeanos, an IaaS for VMs, Networks and Storage to assist Greek Research and Academic Community activities.
National Digital Infrastructure for Research “HELIX” is currently underway. It is a partnership of main academic and research stakeholders (coordinated by GRNET and Athena RC), it is built upon existing services (eg aforementioned) and is designed to serve the entire lifecycle of data (intensive) research (offering also HPC and HTC capabilities).
Since 2007 EKT operates a nation-wide institutional ePublishing infrastructure for open access publications, aimed at supporting open access publishing for Greek scholarly institutions, such as universities, scholarly societies, research centers. It collaborates with 30 Greek publishers and operates three platforms, one each for journals, proceedings and open access monographs with an emphasis –but not limited- to SSH.
Kallipos is an initiative aimed at introducing e-textbooks in higher education. The “Kallipos Action” was developed by the Hellenic Academic Libraries Link (HEAL-Link), the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and the National Research Network (EDET). It was funded by the European Social Fund and the Ministry of Education Operational Programme “Education and Lifelong learning”.