In Italy research is performed mainly by higher education institutions (mainly public and few private universities, polytechnics, research centres) and other types of public institutions. Business enterprises and private not for profit organizations also carry out research in different fields. The public funding comes mainly from the central government and in a smaller scale from regional governments. A relevant role is also played by EU framework programme funding. Private organizations also fund research in different fields.
In 2016 the percentage of Open Access (OA) publications was roughly estimated to be between 13% and 15% over the total number of publications published by Italian institutions.
In Italy research is performed by:
The main public funder in Italy is the MIUR, but other ministries (e.g Ministry for the Economic Development, Health, Foreign Affairs, etc) other central administration agencies and regional governments also play a role in funding research in specific areas (high-tech; nanotechnologies; environmental sciences and health, space research; etc.) and fostering synergies among universities, research organizations and small-medium sized enterprises (as part of the EC Field Programs).
Public research funding can be further split into three categories:
In 2015 (the latest available data, released in November 2017), the total investment in Research & Development accounted for 1.34% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). In 2015 389.604 people were involved in research and development both in the public and private sectors.
In 2006 the Conference of Italian Universities Rectors (CRUI) established a Working Group on OA as part of the CRUI Library Committee. Since its founding the CRUI OA Working Group (OAWG) has performed several activities to support the implementation of OA in Italian universities. Most of the activities concentrated on the drafting and publication of Guidelines and Recommendations successively adopted by several universities. In 2007, CRUI OAWG published the Guidelines on depositing Doctoral Dissertations in open access repositories. (As of 2017 doctoral theses mandate has been implemented in 38 universities).
Later, CRUI OAWG released the following guidelines: Recommendations on OA and Research Evaluation in 2009; Guidelines for OA Journals in 2009; and Guidelines for Institutional Repositories in 2009, Guidelines on the creation and management of OA metadata in 2012. OAWG released Guidelines on drafting institutional policies and mandates for publications and data sets in June 2013.
Since 2004 PLEIADI (Portal for Italian Electronic Scholarly Literature in Institutional Archives) was developed and implemented by the interuniversity supercomputing consortia CASPUR and CILEA (merged in CINECA in 2013) to provide a national platform to access digital contents deposited in the Italian Open Archives. Currently, 2.898.969 items (August 2016) deposited in Italian academic and research institutional repositories or published in Italian OA journals are indexed by PLEIADI, they include peer-reviewed articles, doctoral dissertations, technical reports, working papers.
As of 2018, a high majority of Italian universities (70) has adopted IRIS (Institutional Research Information System) the CRIS developed CINECA fully integrated with D-Space and OpenAIRE and Cerif compliant. At the end of 2017, the total of IRIS installations contained a total of over 4 million records. The integration of the IR with the CRIS together with the adoption of OA institutional policies is boosting the implementation and the population of OA repositories in Italy.
In 2016 AISA (Associazione Italiana per la promozione della Scienza Aperta – Italian Association for the promotion of Open Science) a non-profit organization for the advancement of open access to knowledge in Italy made a proposal to change the Italian copyright law " Proposta di modifica della legge sul diritto d'autore" in line with the changes made in Germany and more recently in France. The text of the proposal is available on AISA website and circulated among research communities and will be brought to the attention of the authorities in the current year hopefully.
In 2016, the IOSSG (Italian Open Science Support Group) working group was formed by members with different interests (research support, digital libraries, Open Science, Legal aspects, ICT) belonging to nine Italian Universities to work on a voluntary basis and without the formal participation of their Institutions. IOSSG aims at promoting Open Science at a national level, with a particular reference to the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC), and it is coordinated by Paola Gargiulo, Italian NOAD in OpenAIRE2020. IOSSG collaborates with private enterprises in the field of open source technologies and services (4Science) and it is in contact with international associations (LIBER, AOSSG/Università di Vienna). IOSSG releases in 2017 a model for research data management policy and a DMP checklist in Italian.
In October 2013 a new law was approved by the Parliament on cultural assets. The Decree -Law“ Urgent provisions for the protection, enhancement and promotion of cultural assets, activities and tourism (13G00135) (G.U No. 186 of 09.08.2013) released on August 9 2013 and converted in law on October 7 2013 (L. 112 /2013) states that results of research, funded at least 50 % with public funds and published in scholarly journals (whose frequency is at least biannual) should be open access.
According to this law, all public research funders and administrators of public research funds are required to take provisions to implement and promote OA according to the principles stated in the law.
In line with the EU recommendations to State members on access to and preservation of scientific information, with the new Italian Law on OA (L. 112 /2013) and with the OA-CRUI guidelines on OA policy, 27 universities out of 97 adopted institutional OA mandates and many others are in the process of approving them (as of September 2018).
The Universities of Milano and Bologna have adopted in 2018 an institutional policy on Open Access to research data.
Large national funded research institutions or publicly funded medium or small research centres have not yet approved any policy with the exception of the ISS - Istituto Superiore di Sanità (the main research institution on health science funded by the Public Health Ministry), and the INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology). However, the main national funded research institutions (ISS, INGV, ENEA, INFN) together with CRUI support OA in principle and committed themselves to take action in the near future by signing the Position Statement on the Open Access to Research Results in March 2013. In particular, INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/National Institute for Nuclear Physics) is playing a leading role in the OA field with its participation in the SCOAP3 initiative
In January 2014 the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research mandated OA for publications and datasets arising from the funding programme for young scientists (Bando SIR Scientific Independence for young scientists programme D. D. 23/01/14 n. 17). According to the mandate, data and peer-reviewed articles must be deposited no later than the time of publication, and must be available in OA no later than six months from the date of publication in scientific, technical and medical fields and no later than 12 months from the date of publication in the social sciences and humanities.
In 2015 and 2017 the research funding programme Bandi PRIN financed by MIUR mandates open access to publications resulting from the funding programme in line with the law (L. 112 /2013).
Regional funding policies are currently under development.
As of January 2018, 126 repositories are listed in OpenDOAR, although some of them are not fully operational, of which 70 IR belong to the institutions which adopted IRIS (Institutional Research Information System) the CRIS, fully integrated with D-Space, developed by CINECA and compliant to OpenAIRE.
A list of IRIS institutional repositories is available here.
Currently, 32 data repositories are listed in Re3Data filtering by country “Italy”. 8 are based in Italy, the remaining ones are run in collaboration with foreign organizations. The list of Italian based data repositories follows:
5 Italian Publishers are listed in the DOAB, with a total of 226 books.
The series has a common format and each webinar is dedicated to specific stakeholders in the field of Open Science: researchers, librarians, research support personnel, funders.
The main aim is to provide clear information and practical tools to the users and introduce them to Open Science related topics.
Each series has a specific theme and it is designed for a specific user category, yet it is open to all the interested actors. Series consist of one or more one hour-chapters.
The webinars will be recorded.
Programme Serie 1
1.1 Open Science e il mandato Europeo sull’Open Access relativo alle pubblicazioni
Date and Time: 17/10/2018, 10.30 CET
2.1 Introduzione al Research Data Management e ai mandati Open Access relativi ai dati della ricerca
Date and Time: 15/11/2018, 12.00 CET
2.2 FAIR data e action plan
Date and Time: 20/11/2018, 12.00 CET
2.3 Data Management Plan e strumenti pratici
Date and Time: 28/11/2018, 14.30 CET
Italy has 1 major funding agency which is listed here:
Italy has 1 major funding agency integrated in OpenAIRE.