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Overview of Open Access in the EU member states

Europe, and the EU member states, already have a strong tradition in Open Access, both in building infrastructures for Open Access repositories and stimulating the establishment Open Access journals and transition of traditional publishing to Open Access.

Open Access Repositories in Europe

The DRIVER project helped to establish and develop repositories in each of the European countries, and stimulated Open Access archiving by promoting policy development at the national level. Institutions wishing to set up a repository can find extensive directions and recommendations on the DRIVER support site. Summaries on Open Access and repositories in each of the member countries are available on the country pages.

Open access to scientific peer reviewed publications has been also anchored as an underlying principle in the Horizon 2020. The Fact Sheet: Open Access in Horizon 2020 describes in a concise manner how Open access is moving from a pilot to an EU policy in Horizon 2020. 


European Open Access Repositories Landscape

The numbers below come from the OpenAIRE aggregated space (updated weekly).
Country#repositories # OA publications
Austria 15  90529
Belgium 12 239668
Bulgaria 2 2525
Croatia 13 180688
Cyprus 2 5698 
Czech Republic 9 63876
Denmark 11 107910
Estonia 1 11205
Finland 9 262180
France 35 924490
Germany 100 1965641
Greece 5 32577
Hungary 8 19618
Iceland 2 597
Ireland 12 95750
Italy 72 255495
Latvia 6 38684
Lithuania 7 43301 
Luxembourg 1 9842
Malta 1 11951
Netherlands 28 501921
Norway 8 220983
Poland 14 64302
Portugal 50 315651
Romania 2 471
Serbia 8 15189
Slovenia 10 226032
Spain 85 1317538
Sweden 25 240380 
Switzerland 18 569182
Turkey 38 115901
United Kingdom 149
(includes about 2.5 mi publications from PMC Europe)

Open Access publishing in Europe

There is a growing number of Open Access Journals; most disciplines are now represented. A comprehensive list of (European) journals currently available, is provided by the Directory of Open Access Journals. National initiatives on publishing in OA journals and specific journals can be found on the country pages.

OpenAIRE and the European initiatives

OpenAIRE builds on and provides access to the network of open access repositories already developed; and (in cooperation with other stakeholders, like COAR, SPARC Europe, and LIBER) it supports further expansion, so that authors have the possibility to comply with the EC Open Access Pilot and ERC Guidelines on Open Access within their own local context. OpenAIRE ties the publication to key research project data, so that it can be identified as an FP7 or ERC-funded project.

The NOADs of OpenAIRE

Most of the EU member states have built expertise on OA. OpenAIRE capitalises on this by establishing a network of National Open Access Desks (NOADs), who can provide support to researchers, institutions and repository managers in their own country seeking to comply with the EC Open Access Pilot and ERC Guidelines on Open Access.

The OpenAIRE network of Open Access desks is structured similarly to the Europe-wide information network on European Research Programmes. The focus of the Open Access Desks activities is on support for compliance with the EC Open Access Pilot. The Open Access desks can be contacted for all questions on Open Access, depositing, the EC Pilot, etc. on the national level.

Please click on one of the countries in the list (right) for further information on:
  • The National Research Environment (research institutions, funding)
  • Open Access and Repositories (awareness, repositories, journals, organizations)
  • Contact details of the Open Access Desk