Very few countries offer such a diverse landcsape in higher education as Germany. Germany is currently home to 390 Higher Education establishments and over 250 public research institutions. Most of the higher education institutions are publicly funded (240), however a significant percentage of private universities exist which historically played a subordinate role but in recent times have gained increasing popularity.
Currently, major changes are taking place in German higher education: The Federal Government and the federal states initiated the 'Excellence Initiative' to promote competition between universities. A large number of new ideas and projects have already been realized as a result of this Excellence Initiative. Furthermore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) released its Open Access Strategy entitled "Open Access in Germany" on September 20th 2016, which contains a clear commitment to the principles of open access and open science.
The major research funder in Germany is the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) which has secured open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts scientists participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access.
Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which the publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.” The DFG offers a number of funding schemes aimed at enabling open access publication (Open Access Publishing Programme) and the development and implementation of open access infrastructure (Infrastructure for Electronic Publications and Digital Scholarly Communication Programme).
Other funders like the Volkswagen Foundation (VolkswagenStiftung) support OA publishing in financial terms (see this overview at open-access.net). Beside nationally funded research, European research projects are gaining importance in recent years. Another prominient aspect of the German research world are the large research institutions including: the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and the Leibniz Association, al of whom actively support OA projects and initiatives.
The OA movement in Germany is frequently referred to in related community publications, for example the book "Open Access. Chancen und Herausforderungen" published 2007 by the Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission (also available in English: "Open Access. Opportunities and Challenges - a Handbook." European Commission / German Commission for UNESCO, 2008), and the special issue “Open Access”, Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, Vol. 54 (2007), Nr. 4/5 (in German).
In the federated environment of Germany, competition among universities and research institutions is stimulating, yet also challenging to the development of a national Open Access policy. Presently, there is no national OA mandate, however some OA statements/policies of German universities and research institutions/organizations are in place.
The most prominent statement in use is the 2003 “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities”, signed by approx. 250 international research institutions/organizations (with >30 from Germany, including the German Rectors’ Conference which includes 258 universities and other HE institutions; the Max Planck Society, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association and the Leibniz Association).
The major research funder in Germany, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), has secured open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts, researchers participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access. Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.”
In 2016, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) also published an Open Access strategy. On an information page on its website, the ministry expresses its support for the strengthening of Open Access. A BMBF directive on the funding of Open Access entered into force in June 2017.
As of 2020, 72 German universities and other higher education institutions had a published OA policy, according to ROARMAP.
All of the 4 big research associations have open access policies:
Many universities and research institutions in Germany run an institutional or subject-based repository, some of these centrally managed by umbrella organizations. Today, over 270 OA repositories exist in Germany: 275 OAI repositories according to OpenDOAR, plus those listed by DINI (for more information about DINI see below) and OAI service providers (like BASE and OAIster).
According to the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) there are 265 German OA journals in existence. Some of these journals are hosted by OA platforms, but most are run individually by research institutions and learned societies. Important platforms hosting OA Journals include: Copernicus Publications, Digital Peer Publishing NRW, German Medical Science, Living Reviews.
A new intiative in the open access publishing world is Open Access 2020, which builds upon the Berlin Declaration and calls for the large-scale transition of scholarly journals from a subscription based model to an open access equivalent. Responsibility for which is afforded to research libraries.
Initial signatories from Germany include the German Research Foundation (DFG), the German Rectors’ Conference (HRK), the German Council of Science and Humanities (WR), the Max Planck Society (MPG), the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association, the Leibniz Association, the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
The Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) established a post-grant fund for open access publications in 2017, which provides financial aid for researchers wanting to make a publication openly available after their BMBF-funded research project has come to an end.
Project DEAL: Project DEAL is an initiative by the Alliance of Science Organisations in Germany. Its goal is to negotiate and complete nationwide license agreements with major academic publishers for their entire range of ejournals. Changes in prices and availability of content shall be made to reduce costs and use institutions’ financial capacities more efficiently whilst expanding access to academic literature including some sort of Open Access.
The involvement of 268 German universities, research institutions and state libraries raises hope that new contracts will be negotiated and changes inevitably made. Negotiations started in 2016, and concentrate on the three biggest publishers in the German market: Elsevier, Springer Nature and Wiley. As press releases state, negotiations with Elsevier were unsuccessful. Although approximately 300 institutions have cancelled their contracts with Elsevier, consensus could not be reached so far with negotiations being temporarily adjourned in July 2018.
In January 2019, a deal with Wiley was achieved resulting in the first Publish and Read (PAR) contract with German institutions. The PAR fee is calculated yearly on the basis of publications per institution and allows all submitting corresponding authors of participating institutions to publish open access (generally under CC-BY) in all of Wiley’s ejournals at no further cost, as well as a 20% discount on Article Processing Charges (APCs) for Wiley’s gold open access journals. The contract also includes perpetual access to all 1.700 Wiley ejournals.
Similar conditions apply to the contract with Springer Nature published in January 2020. Since then it is possible for all submitting corresponding authors of participating institutions to publish open access under CC-BY in almost all of Springer Nature's ejournals with a PAR fee paid by the insitutions. A discount of 20% on APCs for Springer Nature's gold open access journals can now be realized.
Source and further information: https://www.projekt-deal.de/about-deal/
No information available.