In 2016 the portuguese Government and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) have defined Open Science as a priority. The Council of Ministers approved a resolution with the guidelines for the National Open Science Policy and mandated the MCTES to create an Interministerial Working Group (WG-NOSP). That WG produced an initial report with a diagnosis and characterisation of various dimensions and components of Open Science in Portugal, that was followed by a second report containing a set of comprehensive recommendations (encompassing open access and open data, infrastructures and preservation, research evaluation and social responsibility of science). The government never formally adopted those recommendations, but both reports are available (in Portuguese). In 2019, MCTES has commissioned the Open Science agenda to the Portuguese national funder, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). FCT intends to develop a national research data roadmap.
Currently there is no formal responsibility for funding open and FAIR science in Portugal. Despite that, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) has been funding initiatives and infrastructures related with open access and open science, especially the RCAAP (Scientific Open Access Repositories of Portugal) project since 2008. On the other hand, FCT is also the funding agency for the infrastructures included in the National Roadmap of Research Infrastructures of Strategic Relevance, which are instrumental for securing open and FAIR research practices.
In Portugal, the development of Open Access has mostly been carried out by the universities, which have taken different initiatives to expand access to research information. The first Portuguese Open Access initiatives were initiated by the University of Minho with the creation of RepositóriUM, its institutional repository (October 2003) and the subsequent definition of a pioneering self-archiving policy (January 2005). In the middle of 2008, the RCAAP (Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal = Portugal Open Access Science Repository) initiative was established.
At the national level there are several institutional mandates, currently 26 see ROARMAP.