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Sex-specific regulation of chemokine Cxcl5/6 controls neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in acute inflammatory states

Abstract Background Tissue infiltration by neutrophils during acute inflammatory states causes substantial tissue injury. While the magnitude of tissue neutrophil accumulation in innate immune responses is profoundly greater in males than females, fundamental aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying these sex differences remain largely unknown. Methods We investigated sex differences in neutrophil stimulation and recruitment in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; mesenteric or renal) or carragee...

Proton irradiation induces persistent and tissue-specific DNA methylation changes in the left ventricle and hippocampus

Abstract Background Proton irradiation poses a potential hazard to astronauts during and following a mission, with post-mitotic cells at most risk because they cannot dilute resultant epigenetic changes via cell division. Persistent epigenetic changes that result from environmental exposures include gains or losses of DNA methylation of cytosine, which can impact gene expression. In the present study, we compared the long-term epigenetic effects of whole body proton irradiation in the mouse h...

Activation of phagocytic activity in astrocytes by reduced expression of the inflammasome component ASC and its implication in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

Abstract Background The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is overexpressed in Alzheimer disease (AD) as a key regulator of neuroinflammation. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide triggers activation of inflammasomes, protein complexes responsible for IL-1β maturation in microglial cells. Downregulation of NALP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome has been shown to decrease amyloid load and rescue cognitive deficits in a mouse model of AD. Whereas activation of infl...

Primary and Supplementary Figures

A Murat Eren (2016)
Publisher: Figshare
Figures published in the study by Vineis et al, 2016.

Framing overdiagnosis in breast screening: a qualitative study with Australian experts

Lisa Parker; Lucie Rychetnik; Stacy Carter (2015)
Publisher: Figshare
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify how the topic of overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is framed by experts and to clarify differences and similarities within these frames in terms of problems, causes, values and solutions. Methods We used a qualitative methodology using interviews with breast screening experts across Australia and applying framing theory to map and analyse their views about overdiagnosis. We interviewed 33 breast screening experts who influen...

A quantitative feeding assay in adult Drosophila reveals rapid modulation of food ingestion by its nutritional value

Wei Qi; Zhe Yang; Ziao Lin; Jin-Yong Park; Greg Suh; Liming Wang (2015)
Publisher: Figshare
Abstract Background Food intake of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an intermittent feeder, is attributed to several behavioral elements including foraging, feeding initiation and termination, and food ingestion. Despite the development of various feeding assays in fruit flies, how each of these behavioral elements, particularly food ingestion, is regulated remains largely uncharacterized. Results To this end, we have developed a manual feeding (MAFE) assay that specifically measu...

High cost enhances cooperation through the interplay between evolution and self-organisation

Enrico Sandro Colizzi; Paulien Hogeweg (2016)
Publisher: Figshare
Abstract Background Cooperation is ubiquitous in biological systems, yet its evolution is a long lasting evolutionary problem. A general and intuitive result from theoretical models of cooperative behaviour is that cooperation decreases when its costs are higher, because selfish individuals gain selective advantage. Results Contrary to this intuition, we show that cooperation can increase with higher costs. We analyse a minimal model where individuals live on a lattice and evolve the degree o...

Rheumatoid factor, not antibodies against citrullinated proteins, is associated with baseline disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials

Daniel Aletaha; Farideh Alasti; Josef Smolen (2015)
Publisher: Figshare
Abstract Introduction Although the prognostic value of rheumatoid factor (RF) and autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPAs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well established, their association with RA disease activity remains unclear. Here, we investigate this association in a large study using data from clinical trials. Methods We used baseline data from four recent randomized controlled clinical trials of RA. We investigated individual and composite measures of dise...

Factors associated with utilization of emergency contraception among female students in Mizan-Tepi University, South West Ethiopia

Bisrat Shiferaw; Bosena Gashaw; Fekadu Tesso (2015)
Publisher: Figshare
Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy poses a major health problem on female students in higher educations. One of the key interventions to reduce unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion as outlined in the national youth strategy is making emergency contraception (EC) available for these risky population. However, despite its availability in many countries, EC has failed to have the desired impact on unintended pregnancy rates and its utilization is limited in colleges and universities. T...

Does an increase in visits to general practice indicate a malignancy?

Abstract Background An increase in a patient’s visits to doctors usually raises concerns and may be a ‘red flag’ for a patient’s deterioration of health. The aim of this study was to analyze whether an increase of patient-physician contacts is a first sign of a malignancy in a patient’s near future. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study. From 153 German general practices’ electronic patient records (EPR), cases with at least one new malignancy diagnosis and no-malignancy controls...