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Cortical responses to optic flow and motion contrast across patterns and speeds

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Motion provides animals with fast and robust cues for navigation and object detection. In the first case, stereotyped patterns of optic flow inform a moving observer about the direction and speed of its own movement. In the case of object detection, regional differences in motion allow for the segmentation of figures from their background, even in the absence of color or shading cues. Previous research has investigated human electrophysiological responses to global motion across speeds, but o...

Semantic congruity affects numerical judgments similarly in monkeys and humans

Brannon, Elizabeth M. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to order visual arrays based on their number of elements and to conditionally choose the array with the larger or smaller number of elements dependent on a color cue. When the screen background was red, monkeys were reinforced for choosing the smaller numerical value first. When the screen background was blue, monkeys were reinforced for choosing the larger numerical value first. Monkeys showed a semantic congruity effect analogous to that reported for hu...

The Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database: A collection of novel images for use in experimental research

Horst, Jessica S. (2016)
Publisher: Databrary
Many experimental research designs require images of novel objects. Here we introduce the Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database. This database contains 64 primary novel object images and additional novel exemplars for ten basic- and nine global-level object categories. The objects’ novelty was confirmed by both self-report and a lack of consensus on questions that required participants to name and identify the objects. We also found that object novelty correlated with qualifying namin...

Teach to reach: The effects of active vs. passive reaching experiences on action and perception

Needham, Amy (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a 2-weeks training period. Using ‘‘Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other grou...

Spatio-temporal tuning of coherent motion evoked responses in 4–6 month old infants and adults

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Motion cues provide a rich source of information about translations of the observer through the environment as well as the movements of objects and surfaces. While the direction of motion can be extracted locally these local measurements are, in general, insufficient for determining object and surface motions. To study the development of local and global motion processing mechanisms, we recorded Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) in response to dynamic random dot displays that alternated between...

Children use syntax to learn verb meanings

Naigles, Letitia (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Verb learning is clearly a function of observation of real-world contingencies; however, it is argued that such observational information is insufficient to account fully for vocabulary acquisition. This paper provides an experimental validation of Landau & Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure; namely, that children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. Pairs of actions were presented simultaneously with a nonsense verb in one of two syntactic structures. The action...

When do infants begin to follow a point?

Bertenthal, Bennett I. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Infants’ understanding of a pointing gesture represents a major milestone in their communicative development. The current consensus is that infants are not capable of following a pointing gesture until 9–12 months of age. In this article, we present evidence from 4- and 6-month-old infants challenging this conclusion. Infants were tested with a spatial cueing paradigm in Experiment 1 (500-ms stimulus-target onset asynchrony [SOA]) and Experiment 2 (100-ms SOA). The results revealed that the y...

Specificity of learning: Why infants fall over a veritable cliff

Adolph, Karen (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Nine-month-old infants were tested at the precipice of safe and risky gaps in the surface of support. Their reaching and avoidance responses were compared in two postures, an experienced sitting posture and a less familiar crawling posture. The babies avoided reaching over risky gaps in the sitting posture but fell into risky gaps while attempting to reach in the crawling posture. This dissociation between developmental changes in posture suggests that (a) each postural milestone represents a...

Measuring the development of social attention using free-viewing

Frank, Michael C (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
How do young children direct their attention to other people in the natural world? Although many studies have examined the perception of faces and of goal-directed actions, relatively little work has focused on what children will look at in complex and unconstrained viewing environments. To address this question, we showed videos of objects, faces, children playing with toys, and complex social scenes to a large sample of infants and toddlers between 3 and 30 months old. We found systematic d...

Word-minimality, Epenthesis and Coda Licensing in the Early Acquisition of English

Demuth, Katherine (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Katherine Demuth and her research assistants at Brown University compiled the Providence corpus from 2002-2005. The corpus contains longitudinal audio/video recordings of 6 monolingual English-speaking children’s language development from 1-3 years during spontaneous interactions with their parents (usually their mothers) at home. The aim of the study was to provide a corpus of phonetically transcribed data, with linked acoustic files, for the purpose of studying early phonological and morpho...