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Representing exact number visually using mental abacus

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of child...

Cortical responses to optic flow and motion contrast across patterns and speeds

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Motion provides animals with fast and robust cues for navigation and object detection. In the first case, stereotyped patterns of optic flow inform a moving observer about the direction and speed of its own movement. In the case of object detection, regional differences in motion allow for the segmentation of figures from their background, even in the absence of color or shading cues. Previous research has investigated human electrophysiological responses to global motion across speeds, but o...

Teach to reach: The effects of active vs. passive reaching experiences on action and perception

Needham, Amy (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a 2-weeks training period. Using ‘‘Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other grou...

Crawling and walking infants see the world differently

Adolph, Karen (2013)
Publisher: Databrary
Thirteen-month-old infants crawled or walked over a gridded platform while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker (Positive Science). The head-mounted cameras recorded infants' eye position and field of view. A wheeled camera alongside the platform recorded infants' locomotion from a side view. Caregivers stood at the far end of the walkway and held toys at low, medium, and high elevations to provide targets for infants' gaze. An additional group of 13-month-olds crawled or walked over a gridded ...

Understanding the development of motion processing by characterizing optic flow experienced by infants and their mothers

Gilmore, Rick O.; Raudies, Florian; Franchak, John; Adolph, Karen (2015)
Publisher: Databrary
Understanding the development of mature motion processing may require knowledge about the statistics of the visual input that infants are exposed to, how these change across development, and how they influence the maturation of motion-sensitive brain networks. Here we develop a set of techniques to study the optic flow experienced by infants and mothers during locomotion as a first step toward a broader analysis of the statistics of the natural visual environment during development.

Stable individual differences in number discrimination in infancy

Brannon, Elizabeth M (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change detection paradigm, we present more direct evidence that infants’ numerical perception is ratio-dependent even within the range of discriminable ratios and...

The development of predictive processes in children’s discourse understanding

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
We investigate children's online predictive processing as it occurs naturally, in conversation. We showed 1-7 year-olds short videos of improvised conversation between puppets, controlling for available linguistic information through phonetic manipulation. Even one- and two-year-old children made accurate and spontaneous predictions about when a turn-switch would occur: they gazed at the upcoming speaker before they heard a response begin. This predictive skill relies on both lexical and pros...

Visual Motion Priors Differ for Infants and Mothers

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Visual motion direction ambiguities due to edge-aperture interaction might be resolved by speed priors, but scant empirical data support this hypothesis. We measured optic flow and gaze positions of walking mothers and the infants they carried. Empirically derived motion priors for infants are vertically elongated and shifted upward relative to mothers. Skewed normal distributions fitted to estimated retinal speeds peak at values above 20 deg/sec.

Amnesia for object attributes: Failure to report attended information that had just reached conscious awareness

Wyble, Brad (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
We intuitively believe that when we become consciously aware of a visual stimulus, we will be able to remember it for immediate report. The present study provides a series of striking demonstrations that are inconsistent with such an intuition. Four experiments showed that in certain conditions, participants cannot report an attribute (e.g. letter identity) of a stimulus, even when that attribute had been attended and reached a full state of conscious awareness just prior to the question. We ...

Children use syntax to learn verb meanings

Naigles, Letitia (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Verb learning is clearly a function of observation of real-world contingencies; however, it is argued that such observational information is insufficient to account fully for vocabulary acquisition. This paper provides an experimental validation of Landau & Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure; namely, that children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. Pairs of actions were presented simultaneously with a nonsense verb in one of two syntactic structures. The action...