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36 research data, page 1 of 4

Teach to reach: The effects of active vs. passive reaching experiences on action and perception

Needham, Amy (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a 2-weeks training period. Using ‘‘Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other grou...

Cortical responses to optic flow and motion contrast across patterns and speeds

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Motion provides animals with fast and robust cues for navigation and object detection. In the first case, stereotyped patterns of optic flow inform a moving observer about the direction and speed of its own movement. In the case of object detection, regional differences in motion allow for the segmentation of figures from their background, even in the absence of color or shading cues. Previous research has investigated human electrophysiological responses to global motion across speeds, but o...

Children use syntax to learn verb meanings

Naigles, Letitia (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Verb learning is clearly a function of observation of real-world contingencies; however, it is argued that such observational information is insufficient to account fully for vocabulary acquisition. This paper provides an experimental validation of Landau & Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure; namely, that children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. Pairs of actions were presented simultaneously with a nonsense verb in one of two syntactic structures. The action...

Measuring the development of social attention using free-viewing

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
How do young children direct their attention to other people in the natural world? Although many studies have examined the perception of faces and of goal-directed actions, relatively little work has focused on what children will look at in complex and unconstrained viewing environments. To address this question, we showed videos of objects, faces, children playing with toys, and complex social scenes to a large sample of infants and toddlers between 3 and 30 months old. We found systematic d...

Semantic congruity affects numerical judgments similarly in monkeys and humans

Brannon, Elizabeth M. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to order visual arrays based on their number of elements and to conditionally choose the array with the larger or smaller number of elements dependent on a color cue. When the screen background was red, monkeys were reinforced for choosing the smaller numerical value first. When the screen background was blue, monkeys were reinforced for choosing the larger numerical value first. Monkeys showed a semantic congruity effect analogous to that reported for hu...

The Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database: A collection of novel images for use in experimental research

Horst, Jessica S (2016)
Publisher: Databrary
Many experimental research designs require images of novel objects. Here we introduce the Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database. This database contains 64 primary novel object images and additional novel exemplars for ten basic- and nine global-level object categories. The objects’ novelty was confirmed by both self-report and a lack of consensus on questions that required participants to name and identify the objects. We also found that object novelty correlated with qualifying namin...

Word-minimality, Epenthesis and Coda Licensing in the Early Acquisition of English

Demuth, Katherine (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Katherine Demuth and her research assistants at Brown University compiled the Providence corpus from 2002-2005. The corpus contains longitudinal audio/video recordings of 6 monolingual English-speaking children’s language development from 1-3 years during spontaneous interactions with their parents (usually their mothers) at home. The aim of the study was to provide a corpus of phonetically transcribed data, with linked acoustic files, for the purpose of studying early phonological and morpho...

Head-mounted eye tracking: A new method to describe infant looking

Adolph, Karen (2015)
Publisher: Databrary
Despite hundreds of studies describing infants’ visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker that recorded gaze during free play with mothers. Results revealed that infants’ visual exploration is opportunistic and depends on the availability...

Emergence of the ability to perceive dynamic events from still pictures in human infants

Shirai, Nobu (2016)
Publisher: Databrary
The ability to understand a visual scene depicted in a still image is among the abilities shared by all human beings. The aim of the present study was to examine when human infants acquire the ability to perceive the dynamic events depicted in still images (implied motion perception). To this end, we tested whether 4- and 5-month-old infants shifted their gaze toward the direction cued by a dynamic running action depicted in a still figure of a person. Results indicated that the 5- but not th...

Representing exact number visually using mental abacus

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of child...