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34 research data, page 1 of 4

Children use syntax to learn verb meanings

Naigles, Letitia (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Verb learning is clearly a function of observation of real-world contingencies; however, it is argued that such observational information is insufficient to account fully for vocabulary acquisition. This paper provides an experimental validation of Landau & Gleitman's (1985) syntactic bootstrapping procedure; namely, that children may use syntactic information to learn new verbs. Pairs of actions were presented simultaneously with a nonsense verb in one of two syntactic structures. The action...

From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years

Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143 hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1 month to 2 years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5 Hz. The major fi...

Learning in the development of infant locomotion

Adolph, Karen (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Infants master crawling and walking in an environment filled with varied and unfamiliar surfaces. At the same time, infants' bodies and skills continually change. The changing demands of everyday locomotion require infants to adapt locomotion to the properties of the terrain and to their own physical abilities. This Monograph examines how infants acquire adaptive locomotion in a novel task--going up and down slopes. Infants were tested longitudinally from their first week of crawling until se...

The Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database: A collection of novel images for use in experimental research

Horst, Jessica S. (2016)
Publisher: Databrary
Many experimental research designs require images of novel objects. Here we introduce the Novel Object and Unusual Name (NOUN) Database. This database contains 64 primary novel object images and additional novel exemplars for ten basic- and nine global-level object categories. The objects’ novelty was confirmed by both self-report and a lack of consensus on questions that required participants to name and identify the objects. We also found that object novelty correlated with qualifying namin...

Cortical responses to optic flow and motion contrast across patterns and speeds

Gilmore, Rick O. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Motion provides animals with fast and robust cues for navigation and object detection. In the first case, stereotyped patterns of optic flow inform a moving observer about the direction and speed of its own movement. In the case of object detection, regional differences in motion allow for the segmentation of figures from their background, even in the absence of color or shading cues. Previous research has investigated human electrophysiological responses to global motion across speeds, but o...

Teach to reach: The effects of active vs. passive reaching experiences on action and perception

Needham, Amy (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world. However, few studies have considered how reaching experiences shape infants’ own motor development and their perception of actions performed by others. In the current study, two groups of infants received daily parent guided play sessions over a 2-weeks training period. Using ‘‘Sticky Mittens”, one group was enabled to independently pick up objects whereas the other grou...

Word-minimality, Epenthesis and Coda Licensing in the Early Acquisition of English

Demuth, Katherine (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Katherine Demuth and her research assistants at Brown University compiled the Providence corpus from 2002-2005. The corpus contains longitudinal audio/video recordings of 6 monolingual English-speaking children’s language development from 1-3 years during spontaneous interactions with their parents (usually their mothers) at home. The aim of the study was to provide a corpus of phonetically transcribed data, with linked acoustic files, for the purpose of studying early phonological and morpho...

Visual search and attention to faces during early infancy

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
Newborn babies look preferentially at faces and face-like displays, yet over the course of their first year much changes about both the way infants process visual stimuli and how they allocate their attention to the social world. Despite this initial preference for faces in restricted contexts, the amount that infants look at faces increases considerably during the first year. Is this development related to changes in attentional orienting abilities? We explored this possibility by showing 3-...

Phenomenal permanence and the development of predictive tracking in infancy

Bertenthal, Bennett I. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
The perceived spatiotemporal continuity of objects depends on the way they appear and disappear as they move in the spatial layout. This study investigated whether infants' predictive tracking of a briefly occluded object is sensitive to the manner by which the object disappears and reappears. Five-, 7-, and 9-month-old infants were shown a ball rolling across a visual scene and briefly disappearing via kinetic occlusion, instantaneous disappearance, implosion, or virtual occlusion. Three dif...

Measuring the development of social attention using free-viewing

Frank, Michael C. (2014)
Publisher: Databrary
How do young children direct their attention to other people in the natural world? Although many studies have examined the perception of faces and of goal-directed actions, relatively little work has focused on what children will look at in complex and unconstrained viewing environments. To address this question, we showed videos of objects, faces, children playing with toys, and complex social scenes to a large sample of infants and toddlers between 3 and 30 months old. We found systematic d...