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3797 research data, page 1 of 380

Identification of Different Types of Spinal Afferent Nerve Endings That Encode Noxious and Innocuous Stimuli in the Large Intestine Using a Novel Anterograde Tracing Technique

In mammals, sensory stimuli in visceral organs, including those that underlie pain perception, are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). One of the major challenges in visceral organs has been how to identify the different types of nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials. The reason why spinal afferent nerve endings have been so challenging to identify is because no techniques have been availabl...

Crystallinity Segregation upon Selective Self-Assembling of Gold Colloidal Single Nanocrystals

Spontaneous separation of single from polycrystalline 5 nm gold nanocrystals (NCs) is observed in colloidal solution. This segregation takes place upon self-assembling of single crystalline NCs at the air–solvent interface and in precipitated superlattices. Polycrystalline NCs are observed to remain in the suspension. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the size distribution of NCs issued from the different populations indicates that the NC size does not change f...

Transparent Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Pressure Sensors Based on Micropatterned Plastic Films

Transparent, flexible and high efficient power sources are important components of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, based on the principle of the previously demonstrated triboelectric generator, we demonstrate a new high-output, flexible and transparent nanogenerator by using transparent polymer materials. We have fabricated three types of regular and uniform polymer patterned arrays (line, cube, and pyramid) to improve the efficiency of the na...

Direct Solvation of Glycoproteins by Salts in Spider Silk Glues Enhances Adhesion and Helps To Explain the Evolution of Modern Spider Orb Webs

The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition’s mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of ...

Selective Penicillin-Binding Protein Imaging Probes Reveal Substructure in Bacterial Cell Division

The peptidoglycan cell wall is a common target for antibiotic therapy, but its structure and assembly are only partially understood. Peptidoglycan synthesis requires a suite of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), the individual roles of which are difficult to determine because each enzyme is often dispensable for growth perhaps due to functional redundancy. To address this challenge, we sought to generate tools that would enable selective examination of a subset of PBPs. ...

Stochastic Sensing on a Modular Chip Containing a Single-Ion Channel

Shim, Ji Wook; Gu, Li Qun (2007)
Publisher: Figshare
Engineered protein channels have many potential applications in biosensing at the single-molecule level. A future generation of biosensor could be an array of target-specific ion channels, where each protein pore acts as a sensor element. An important step toward this goal is to create a portable, durable, single-protein channel-integrated chip device. Here we report a versatile, modular chip that contains a single-ion channel for single-molecular biosensing. The core of the...

Characterization of Overwintering Sites of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Natural Landscapes Using Human Surveyors and Detector Canines

Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natura...

Low Doses of Pristine and Oxidized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Affect Mammalian Embryonic Development

Several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest local and systemic effects following exposure to carbon nanotubes. No data are available, however, on their possible embryotoxicity in mammals. In this study, we tested the effect of pristine and oxidized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the development of the mouse embryo. To this end, SWCNTs (from 10 ng to 30 μg/mouse) were administered to female mice soon after implantation (postcoital day 5.5); 10 days later, animals were sacrificed, an...

In Situ Spatiotemporal Mapping of Flow Fields around Seeded Stem Cells at the Subcellular Length Scale

A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool f...

Synthesis of Cell-Adhesive Anisotropic Multifunctional Particles by Stop Flow Lithography and Streptavidin–Biotin Interactions

Cell-adhesive particles are of significant interest in biotechnology, the bioengineering of complex tissues, and biomedical research. Their applications range from platforms to increase the efficiency of anchorage-dependent cell culture to building blocks to loading cells in heterogeneous structures to clonal-population growth monitoring to cell sorting. Although useful, currently available cell-adhesive particles can accommodate only homogeneous cell culture. Here, we re...