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137572 research data, page 1 of 13758

Colitis severity assessment by utilizing TINT.

TINT time intervals determined in controls (A) and 1% (B) as well as 1.5% DSS treated mice (C). TINT time intervals were significantly increased in 1% DSS treated Cd14-/- mice compared to WT mice on day 7 post colitis-induction (B).

Generation of IL-23 Producing Dendritic Cells (DCs) by Airborne Fungi Regulates Fungal Pathogenicity via the Induction of TH-17 Responses

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper cells (TH-17) comprise a newly recognized T cell subset with an emerging role in adaptive immunity to a variety of fungi. Whether different airborne fungi trigger a common signaling pathway for TH-17 induction, and whether this ability is related to the inherent pathogenic behavior of each fungus is currently unknown. Here we show that, as opposed to primary pathogenic fungi (Histoplasma capsulatum), opportunistic fungal pathogens (Aspergillus and Rhi...

Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intrac...

Using Entropy Maximization to Understand the Determinants of Structural Dynamics beyond Native Contact Topology

R. Lezon, Timothy; Bahar, Ivet (2010)
Publisher: Figshare
Comparison of elastic network model predictions with experimental data has provided important insights on the dominant role of the network of inter-residue contacts in defining the global dynamics of proteins. Most of these studies have focused on interpreting the mean-square fluctuations of residues, or deriving the most collective, or softest, modes of motions that are known to be insensitive to structural and energetic details. However, with increasing structural data, we are in a position...

Near-Stasis in the Long-Term Diversification of Mesozoic Tetrapods

How did evolution generate the extraordinary diversity of vertebrates on land? Zero species are known prior to ~380 million years ago, and more than 30,000 are present today. An expansionist model suggests this was achieved by large and unbounded increases, leading to substantially greater diversity in the present than at any time in the geological past. This model contrasts starkly with empirical support for constrained diversification in marine animals, suggesting different macroevolutionar...

A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by th...

Burden of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Related to Tobacco Smoking among Adults Aged ≥45 Years in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts

BackgroundTobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.Methods and FindingsWe performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated...

A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Double Masked Phase IB Study Evaluating the Safety and Antiviral Activity of Aprepitant, a Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist in HIV-1 Infected Adults

BackgroundNeurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have anti-HIV activity in monocyte-derived macrophages, decrease CCR5 expression and improve natural killer cell function ex vivo. Aprepitant is a NK1R antagonist approved by FDA as an antiemetic. MethodsWe conducted a phase IB randomized, placebo controlled, double masked study to evaluate the safety, antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics and immune-modulatory effects of aprepitant in HIV-infected adults not receiving antiretroviral therapy, ...

Prognostic Value and Clinicopathological Differences of HIFs in Colorectal Cancer: Evidence from Meta-Analysis

BackgroundThe prognostic value of HIFs in colorectal cancer was evaluated in a large number of studies, but the conclusions were inconclusive. Meanwhile, clinicopathologic differences of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were rarely compared in recent studies.MethodologyIdentical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. The prognostic significances and clinicopathological differences of HIFs in CRC were analyzed.Principal FindingsA total of 23stud...

Proteomic Amino-Termini Profiling Reveals Targeting Information for Protein Import into Complex Plastids

In organisms with complex plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis from a photosynthetic eukaryote, the majority of plastid proteins are nuclear-encoded, translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and guided across four membranes by a bipartite targeting sequence. In-depth understanding of this vital import process has been impeded by a lack of information about the transit peptide part of this sequence, which mediates transport across the inner three membranes. We determined the mature N-termi...