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119548 research data, page 1 of 11955

Murine and Bovine γδ T Cells Enhance Innate Immunity against Brucella abortus Infections

γδ T cells have been postulated to act as a first line of defense against infectious agents, particularly intracellular pathogens, representing an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human γδ T cells expand in the blood of brucellosis patients and are active against Brucella in vitro. However, the role of γδ T cells in vivo during experimental brucellosis has not been studied. Here we report TCRδ−/− mice are more susceptible to B. abortus infection than C57BL/6 mi...

Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa

Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in differ...

A Phase Ib/II Study Evaluating the Combination of Weekly Docetaxel and Cisplatin Together with Capecitabine and Bevacizumab in Patients with Advanced Esophago-Gastric Cancer

IntroductionCurrent treatment options for advanced esophagogastric cancer (AEGC) are still unsatisfactory. The aim of this prospective phase Ib/II study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel regimen, AVDCX, consisting of weekly docetaxel and cisplatin together with capecitabine and bevacizumab, in AEGC.MethodsPatients with AEGC received treatment with different dose levels of AVDCX (cisplatin and docetaxel 25–35 mg/m2, days 1,8, capecitabine 1,600 mg/m2 days 1–14, bevacizumab 7.5...

Canine Skin and Conjunctival Swab Samples for the Detection and Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA in an Endemic Urban Area in Brazil

BackgroundWe evaluated kDNA PCR/hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum for CVL diagnosis and assessment of parasite load in clinical samples obtained invasively and non-invasively. Methodology/Principal FindingsEighty naturally infected dogs from an endemic urban area in Brazil were used. Animals were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of CVL clinical sings. Skin biopsies, bone marrow, blood and con...

Microbiome and Exudates of the Root and Rhizosphere of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model for Wheat

The rhizosphere microbiome is regulated by plant genotype, root exudates and environment. There is substantial interest in breeding and managing crops that host root microbial communities that increase productivity. The eudicot model species Arabidopsis has been used to investigate these processes, however a model for monocotyledons is also required. We characterized the rhizosphere microbiome and root exudates of Brachypodium distachyon, to develop it as a rhizosphere model for cereal specie...

A Genome-Wide Study of DNA Methylation Patterns and Gene Expression Levels in Multiple Human and Chimpanzee Tissues

The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, ...

Automated Discrimination of Brain Pathological State Attending to Complex Structural Brain Network Properties: The Shiverer Mutant Mouse Case

Neuroimaging classification procedures between normal and pathological subjects are sparse and highly dependent of an expert's clinical criterion. Here, we aimed to investigate whether possible brain structural network differences in the shiverer mouse mutant, a relevant animal model of myelin related diseases, can reflect intrinsic individual brain properties that allow the automatic discrimination between the shiverer and normal subjects. Common structural networks properties between shiver...

The Interactive Effect of SIRT1 Promoter Region Polymorphism on Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in the North Indian Population

Our previous studies have implicated genes mainly involved in the activity of pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in the North Indian population. Recent literature on the role of SIRT1 as a potential master switch modulating insulin secretion and regulating gene expression in pancreatic β cells has warranted an evaluation of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms in the North Indian population, which is the main focus of the present study. 1542 samples (692 T2D patients an...

10-y Risks of Death and Emergency Re-admission in Adolescents Hospitalised with Violent, Drug- or Alcohol-Related, or Self-Inflicted Injury: A Population-Based Cohort Study

BackgroundHospitalisation for adversity-related injury (violent, drug/alcohol-related, or self-inflicted injury) has been described as a “teachable moment”, when intervention may reduce risks of further harm. Which adolescents are likely to benefit most from intervention strongly depends on their long-term risks of harm. We compared 10-y risks of mortality and re-admission after adversity-related injury with risks after accident-related injury.Methods and FindingsWe analysed National Health S...

Constitutive Neutrophil Apoptosis: Regulation by Cell Concentration via S100 A8/9 and the MEK – ERK Pathway

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental mechanism in tissue and cell homeostasis. It was long suggested that apoptosis regulates the cell number in diverse cell populations; however no clear mechanism was shown. Neutrophils are the short-lived, first-line defense of innate immunity, with an estimated t = 1/2 of 8 hours and a high turnover rate. Here we first show that spontaneous neutrophil constitutive PCD is regulated by cell concentrations. Using a proteomic approach, we identified th...