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16497 research data, page 1 of 1650

Interleukin-10 Mediated Autoregulation of Murine B-1 B-Cells and Its Role in Borrelia hermsii Infection

B cells are typically characterized as positive regulators of the immune response, primarily by producing antibodies. However, recent studies indicate that various subsets of B cells can perform regulatory functions mainly through IL-10 secretion. Here we discovered that peritoneal B-1 (B-1P) cells produce high levels of IL-10 upon stimulation with several Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. High levels of IL-10 suppressed B-1P cell proliferation and differentiation response to all TLR ligands ...

Enhanced Food Anticipatory Activity Associated with Enhanced Activation of Extrahypothalamic Neural Pathways in Serotonin2C Receptor Null Mutant Mice

The ability to entrain circadian rhythms to food availability is important for survival. Food-entrained circadian rhythms are characterized by increased locomotor activity in anticipation of food availability (food anticipatory activity). However, the molecular components and neural circuitry underlying the regulation of food anticipatory activity remain unclear. Here we show that serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2CR) null mutant mice subjected to a daytime restricted feeding schedule exhibit enhanc...

Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Induces Neuroimmune Activation and Potentiates Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Neurotoxicity

BackgroundHepatitis C virus (HCV) genomes and proteins are present in human brain tissues although the impact of HIV/HCV co-infection on neuropathogenesis remains unclear. Herein, we investigate HCV infectivity and effects on neuronal survival and neuroinflammation in conjunction with HIV infection.MethodologyHuman microglia, astrocyte and neuron cultures were infected with cell culture-derived HCV or exposed to HCV core protein with or without HIV-1 infection or HIV-1 Viral Protein R (Vpr) e...

Estimates of the substitution rate and the tMRCA for the NS5B gene by Bayesian coalescent methods under several molecular clock and population genetic models.

aMarginal likelihoods were calculated via importance sampling using the harmonic mean of the sampled likelihoods (with the posterior as the importance distribution).bTime of the most recent common ancestor. The numbers between brackets are the 95% lower and upper values from the highest posterior density (95%HPD).cSubstitution rates are given in nucleotide substitutions per site per year (s/s/y). The numbers between brackets are the 95% lower and upper values from the highest posterior densit...

G. destructans work done at the Mycology Laboratory of the Wadsworth Center.

The data include results of PCR on bat tissue samples collected from little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), culture information obtained with standard protocols for the recovery of human pathogenic fungi and a modified culture procedure to recover this psychrophilic fungus at 4°C.Wms Lake, Williams Lake Mine; Wms Hotel, Williams Hotel Mine; NA, Not applicable (paraffin-fixed tissue); ND, Not done∫Gross and microscopic fungal infection in skin of muzzle and wing membranes, except 641- wing memb...

Causal Relationship of Susceptibility Genes to Ischemic Stroke: Comparison to Ischemic Heart Disease and Biochemical Determinants

Interrelationships between genetic and biochemical factors underlying ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease are poorly understood. We: 1) undertook the most comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic polymorphisms in ischemic stroke to date; 2) compared genetic determinants of ischemic stroke with those of ischemic heart disease, and 3) compared effect sizes of gene-stroke associations with those predicted from independent biochemical data using a mendelian randomization strategy. Electronic...

Prolonged Antigen Presentation Is Required for Optimal CD8+ T Cell Responses against Malaria Liver Stage Parasites

Immunization with irradiated sporozoites is currently the most effective vaccination strategy against liver stages of malaria parasites, yet the mechanisms underpinning the success of this approach are unknown. Here we show that the complete development of protective CD8+ T cell responses requires prolonged antigen presentation. Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks ...