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70 documents, page 1 of 7

Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers

In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height an...

Impact of a monotonic advection scheme with low numerical diffusion on transport modeling of emissions from biomass burning

An advection scheme, which maintains the initial monotonic characteristics of a tracer field being transported and at the same time produces low numerical diffusion, is implemented in the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Several comparisons of transport modeling using the new and original (non-monotonic) CCATT-BRAMS formulations are performed. Idealized 2-D non-divergent or divergent and s...

Progress in Understanding Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling from LBA Research

LBA research has deepened our understanding of the role of soil water storage, clouds and aerosols in land-atmosphere coupling. We show how the reformulation of cloud forcing in terms of an effective cloud albedo per unit area of surface gives a useful measure of the role of clouds in the surface energy budget over the Amazon. We show that the diurnal temperature range has a quasi-linear relation to the daily mean longwave cooling; and to effective cloud albedo because of the tight coupling b...

Large-scale environmental variables and transition to deep convection in cloud resolving model simulations: A vector representation

Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between...

An improved lake model for climate simulations: Model structure, evaluation, and sensitivity analyses in CESM1

Lakes can influence regional climate, yet most general circulation models have, at best, simple and largely untested representations of lakes. We developed the Lake, Ice, Snow, and Sediment Simulator(LISSS) for inclusion in the land-surface component (CLM4) of an earth system model (CESM1). The existing CLM4 lake modelperformed poorly at all sites tested; for temperate lakes, summer surface water temperature predictions were 10–25uC lower than observations. CLM4-LISSS modifies the existing mo...

A mechanistic ecohydrological model to investigate complex interactions in cold and warm water-controlled environments. 1. Theoretical framework and plot-scale analysis

Numerous studies have explored the role of vegetation in controlling and mediating hydrological states and fluxes at the level of individual processes, which has led to improvements in our understanding of plot-scale dynamics. Relatively less effort has been directed toward spatially-explicit studies of vegetation-hydrology interactions at larger scales of a landscape.Only few continuous, process-oriented ecohydrological models had been proposed with structures of varying complexity. This stu...

Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV). This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with...

The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined...

Technical note: Large-eddy simulation of cloudy boundary layer with the Advanced Research WRF model

A thorough evaluation of the large-eddy simulation (LES) mode of the Advanced Research WRF model is performed with use of three cloudy boundary layer cases developed as LES intercomparison cases by the GEWEX Cloud System Study. Our evaluation reveals two problems that must be recognized and carefully addressed before proceeding with production runs. These are (i) sensitivity of results to the prescribed number of acoustic time steps per physical time step; and (ii) the assumption of saturatio...