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Collective Dynamics
17 Publications


  • Fundamental Diagrams for Specific Very High Density Crowds

    Lohner, Rainald; Muhamad, Britto; Dambalmath, Prabhu; Haug, Eberhard (2018)
    An experimental campaign was undertaken to measure the pedestrian flow in the region close to the Kaaba during the Hajj pilgrimages of 2014 and 2015. High resolution video and photographs were used. The space was divided into areas of 10 sqm. The pedestrians were counted, and the velocity measured from video clips. The results were surprising: the velocity in the very high density region increases, which implies also an increase of the flux. The flux in this region (with more than 8p/sqm) rea...

    A review of pedestrian flow characteristics and level of service over different pedestrian facilities

    Banerjee, Arunabha; Maurya, Akhilesh Kumar; Lämmel, Gregor (2018)
    Present paper reviewed the past studies on pedestrian flow characteristics (such as speed, flow, density, space, free-flow speed and jam density) and development of Pedestrian Level of Service (PLOS) for various pedestrian facilities (i.e., sidewalk, walkway, crosswalk, grade separated, stairways and escalators). Fundamental relationships (between speed and density) were observed over different facilities and were found to be significantly different. The fundamental relationships for sidewalk...

    Age and Group-driven Pedestrian Behaviour: from Observations to Simulations

    Gorrini, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Bandini, Stefania (2016)
    The development of pedestrian simulation systems requires the acquisition of empirical evidences about human behaviour for sake of model validation. In this framework, the paper presents the results of an on field observation of pedestrian behaviour in an urban crowded walkway. The research was aimed at testing the potentially combined effect of ageing and grouping on speed and proxemic behaviour. In particular, we focused on dyads, as the most frequent type of groups in the observed scenario...

    Oppilatio+ - A data and cognitive science based approach to analyze pedestrian flows in networks

    Biedermann, Daniel H.; Kielar, Peter M.; Riedl, Andreas M.; Borrmann, André (2017)
    Public transport services are a widespread and environmentally friendly option for mobility. In the majority of cases, passengers of public transport services will have to walk from a subway, train, or bus station to their desired travel destination. In an urban environment with a network of narrow streets, this can lead to crowd congestions during rush hour, due to the fact that passengers tend to arrive in waves. In order to monitor and analyze such crowding behavior, city planners, crowd m...

    Impact of Synchronised Flow in Oversaturated City Traffic on Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Electrical Vehicles

    Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Rehborn, Hubert; Kerner, Boris S.; Schreckenberg, Michael (2016)
    In this study of city traffic, we show that empirical synchronised flow patterns, which have been revealed recently in oversaturated traffic, exhibit considerable impact on the energy efficiency of vehicles. In particular, we have found out that energy consumption in oversaturated city traffic can decrease considerably when the oversaturated city traffic consists of synchronised flow patterns rather than consisting of moving queues of the classical traffic flow theory at traffic signals. Usin...
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