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19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century
226 Publications
OpenAIRE 3.0 (OA, funding)


  • The Awakening Conscience: Christian Sentiment, Salvation, and Spectatorship in Mid-Victorian Britain

    From the 1830s into the mid-1850s, key Victorian art and texts depicted passionate Christian feeling through the trope of ‘awakening’. Visual and written representations dramatized awakening Christians in fervent states of salvation, conversion, and devotion. Feeling had always been central to Christian belief but in the long nineteenth century faith was newly wedded to sensation. From the 1780s onwards, Christian reformers explored sensory psychologies and environmental settings as methods f...

    Power, Creativity, and Destruction in Turner's Fires

    This article considers Turner’s depictions of fire throughout his career. Beginning with some of his very first images, including The Pantheon, the Morning after the Fire, it argues that while fire would eventually come to be a means for Turner to create his reputation as a painter of destruction, it also held associations of creativity, domesticity, and comfort. Furthermore, while fire was not nearly as prominent in his early work as it was in the early 1830s, it also became a means for him ...

    Animating Flames: Recovering Fire-Gazing as a Moving-Image Technology

    In nineteenth-century England, the industrialization of heat and light rendered fire-gazing increasingly obsolete. Fire-gazing is a form of flame-based reverie that typically involves a solitary viewer who perceives animated, moving images dissolving into and out of view in a wood or coal fire. When fire-gazing, the viewer may perceive arbitrary pictures, fantastic landscapes, or more familiar forms, such as the faces of friends and family. This article recovers fire-gazing as an early and mo...

    Diana or Christ?: Seeing and Feeling Doubt in Late-Victorian Visual Culture

    A young woman, a Christian from the third century ce, has a serious decision to make. She stands before a vast crowd at Ephesus, in what is now Turkey. Should she show her allegiance to Diana, the Roman goddess of the hunt, and live, or choose Christ, and be thrown to the lions? Victorian gallery-goers were entranced by this scene, an 1881 painting by the Anglo-Catholic Edwin Long, exhibited in that year at the Royal Academy, and again to widespread acclaim in the Manchester Jubilee Exhibitio...

    Feeling, Affect, Melancholy, Loss: Millais’s Autumn Leaves and the Siege of Sebastopol

    John Millais’s Autumn Leaves (1856) has long been recognized as a painting that sets out to produce certain feelings in the spectator — feelings that are usually identified as very abstract ones of melancholy and loss. As such, it tends to be read either alongside contemporary poetry that seeks to evoke a similar response, or as a forerunner of the aesthetic turn of the 1860s. I examine first some of the general questions that surround the production of feeling and affect in relation to ninet...
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