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Clancy, TimothyThis paper seeks to explain the rapid growth of the Islamic State of Iraq & Syria (ISIS) and approach the question of “what is” the Islamic State? The paper offers several contributions. First is the proposal of a dynamic hypothesis that ISIS is an emerging-state actor and differs notably from traditional non-state actors and insurgencies. The theory consists of both a causal loop diagram and key propositions. A detailed system dynamics simulation (E-SAM) was constructed to test the theor...Hill, Colin; Stockdale, Stephen; Ryan, Feargal; Mccann, Angela; Dalmasso, Marion; Ross, PaulThe human virome is an area of increasing interest with relation to human health and disease. It has been demonstrated to alter in concert with the bacterial microbiome in early life and was also found to be different in patients with certain diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, all virome analyses are hampered by a lack of annotated representative database sequences, often referred to as the ‘viral dark matter’. Here we provide the first description of the gut DNA virome in ...Nguyen, LocMaximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a popular method for parameter estimation in both applied probability and statistics but MLE cannot solve the problem of incomplete data or hidden data because it is impossible to maximize likelihood function from hidden data. Expectation maximum (EM) algorithm is a powerful mathematical tool for solving this problem if there is a relationship between hidden data and observed data. Such hinting relationship is specified by a mapping from hidden data to o...
The Numerical Approach to Genetic Code and Its Elucidations for Structure and Code-Amino Acid Assignment Patterns of the Genetic Code SystemAhmed, NoorTo understand the degeneracy, symmetry and code-amino acid assignments in the standard genetic code system, theoretical approach is tested based on allotting numerical values to each nucleotide base of DNA and generated the concept of numerical values of codons. When codon values are calculated according to the numerical values of their each nucleotide base, a significant association among the codon values of each amino acid is observed and a map is constructed according to their values of ea...Fischer, JensFour Fourier transforms are usually defined, the Integral Fourier transform, the Discrete-Time Fourier transform (DTFT), the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the Integral Fourier transform for periodic functions. However, starting from their definitions, we show that all four Fourier transforms can be reduced to actually only one Fourier transform, the Fourier transform in the distributional sense.
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