The morphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds of some representatives of the subfamily Hippocrateoideae s.l. (incl. Salacioideae) and tribe Lophopetaleae of the family Celastraceae (8 species from 6 genera) are discussed.For representatives of the subfamily Hippocrateoideae (except those from them which have the fleshy fruits) divided 3-nested capsules with a flattened mericarps formed by separate carpels, and winged seeds (the wing is formed from the basal end of the seed) are typical. The species of the tribe Lophopetaleae have follicle-liked 3-nested capsules and winged seeds (the wing in the form of a disc around the body of the seed, or apical outgrowth from it). A common character, typical for representatives of both groups is the presence of groups of sclereids (derivatives of conducting bundles) in the thick of mesocarp (including representatives with fleshy fruits!). In the mature of spermoderm all studied species have well defined layers of testa only. Special focus to mechanism of dry fruit dissection is attended.Having a number of common characters, both groups are distinguished by features of formation and dissemination of their fruit-capsules, and the arrangement of winged seeds in the nests of fruit.