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Fotios, S.

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  • A revised Kruithof graph based on empirical data

    Kruithof’s graph identifies combinations of illuminance and correlated\ud color temperature (CCT) alleged to yield pleasing visual conditions for interior\ud lighting. Though in research terms the support provided by Kruithof is insufficient,\ud it is widely cited as a design rule and has been the focus of many experimental studies\ud despite evidence against Kruithof since at least 1990. The current article examines\ud the trends displayed in those studies considered to provide credible evid...

    Review of a published article (Kakitsuba N. Comfortable Indoor Lighting Conditions Evaluated from Psychological and Physiological Responses.)

    Fotios, S. (2016)
    This note is a critical review of the spatial brightness experiment reported by Kakitsuba\ud [Kakitsuba 2015]. There are several reasons why I think the study is flawed and therefore\ud that the results should not be considered credible. In particular, the results can largely be\ud explained by a stimulus range bias, the ‘boundary’ illuminances tending to lie near the centre\ud of each range of illuminances reported. Therefore the results are a product of the illuminance\ud ranges chosen by t...

    Comment on empirical evidence for the design of public lighting

    Fotios, S. (2016)
    A recent article (Peña-García et al., 2015) presented conclusions regarding the benefits of road lighting for pedestrians. Here it is demonstrated that those conclusions were drawn from incomplete evidence, in one case because the experimental designs leads only to a trivial solution and in a second case because of an incomplete search of the literature.

    Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark. A review of the evidence

    Fotios, S. (2014)
    Road lighting is installed in residential areas is to increa\ud se pedestrians’ reassurance, their\ud confidence when walking after dark, which in past studies has been expressed as perceived\ud safety or fear of crime. This article reviews past studies of road lighting and pedestrian\ud reassurance to enable better understand\ud ing of whether lighting is effective, and of whether\ud variations in illuminance and lamp type, are effective at improving reassurance. This review\ud presents evid...

    Measure for Measure. Semi-cylindrical illuminance: a semi-conceived measure?

    Fotios, S. (2017)
    Semi-cylindrical illuminance has been promoted as a better measure for lighting design than vertical illuminance. Professor Steve Fotios is unconvinced

    Measuring the impact of lighting on interpersonal judgements of pedestrians at night-time

    This article discusses interpersonal judgements made between ped\ud estrians after dark and in\ud particular that judgements of intent are needed in addition to judgements of identity. The\ud current study uses judgements of emotion from facial expression and body posture, and\ud judgements of gaze direction, to evaluate the influe\ud nce of lighting on\ud visual cues to\ud perceived\ud intent. An experiment has been carried out in which judgements of emotion (using targets of\ud facial expre...

    Exploring interpersonal judgements between pedestrians

    Interpersonal judgements have been explored in\ud three\ud studies reported here.\ud The first\ud investigated the visual information\ud extracted\ud about other pedestrians at a range of\ud interpersonal distances.\ud The second study examined judgements of\ud threat\ud intent\ud based on\ud facial expressions and body postures\ud and found\ud that only a few expression\ud s/postures\ud we\ud re\ud judged repeatedly to present, or not present, a threat\ud –\ud t\ud he level of consistency is...

    Using the daylight savings clock change to show ambient light conditions significantly influence active travel

    This article reports a novel procedure used to investigate whether ambient light conditions affect the number of people who choose to walk or cycle. Pedestrian and cyclist count data were analysed using the biannual daylight-saving clock changes to compare daylight and after-dark conditions whilst keeping seasonal and time-of-day factors constant. Changes in frequencies during a one-hour case period before and after a clock change, when light conditions varied significantly between daylight a...

    Lighting for cycling in the UK : a review

    While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not ...
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