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The effect of small noise in a smooth dynamical system is negligible on any finite time interval. Here we study situations when it persists on intervals increasing to infinity. Such phenomenon occurs when the system starts from initial condition, sufficiently close to an unstable fixed point. In this case, under appropriate scaling, the trajectory converges to solution of the unperturbed system, started from a certain {\em random} initial condition. In this paper we consider the Wright-Fisher...
We establish, under the Cramer exponential moment condition in a neighbourhood of zero, the Extended Large Deviation Principle for the Random Walk and the Compound Poisson processes in the metric space $\V$ of functions of finite variation on $[0,\infty)$ with the modified Borovkov metric $\r(f,g)= \r_\B(\hat{f},\hat{g}) $, where $ \hat f(t)= f(t)/(1+t)$, $t\in \R$, and $\r_\B$ is the Borovkov metric. LDP in this space is "more precise" than that with the usual metric of uniform convergence o...
Real time, or quantitative, PCR typically starts from a very low concentration of initial DNA strands. During iterations the numbers increase, first essentially by doubling, later predominantly in a linear way. Observation of the number of DNA molecules in the experiment becomes possible only when it is substantially larger than initial numbers, and then possibly affected by the randomness in individual replication. Can the initial copy number still be determined? This is a classical problem ...
We provide a general result for bounding the difference between point probabilities of integer supported distributions and the translated Poisson distribution, a convenient alternative to the discretized normal. We illustrate our theorem in the context of the Hoeffding combinatorial central limit theorem with integer valued summands, of the number of isolated vertices in an Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graph, and of the Curie-Weiss model of magnetism, where we provide optimal or near optimal rate...
The paper presents a phenomenon occurring in population processes that start near zero and have large carrying capacity. By the classical result of Kurtz (1970), such processes, normalized by the carrying capacity, converge on finite intervals to the solutions of ordinary differential equations, also known as the fluid limit. When the initial population is small relative to carrying capacity, this limit is trivial. Here we show that, viewed at suitably chosen times increasing to infinity, the...
For integer valued random variables, the translated Poisson distributions form a flexible family for approximation in total variation, in much the same way that the normal family is used for approximation in Kolmogorov distance. Using the Stein--Chen method, approximation can often be achieved with error bounds of the same order as those for the CLT. In this paper, an analogous theory, again based on Stein's method, is developed in the multivariate context. The approximating family consists o...
We study a system of interacting reinforced random walks defined on polygons. At each stage, each particle chooses an edge to traverse which is incident to its position. We allow the probability of choosing a given edge to depend on the sum of, the number of times that particle traversed that edge, a quantity which depends on the behaviour of the other particles, and possibly external factors. We study localization properties of this system and our main tool is a new result we establish for a...
We prove a general normal approximation theorem for local graph statistics in the configuration model, together with an explicit bound on the error in the approximation with respect to the Wasserstein metric. Such statistics take the form $T := \sum_{v \in V} H_v$, where $V$ is the vertex set, and $H_v$ depends on a neighbourhood in the graph around $v$ of size at most $\ell$. The error bound is expressed in terms of $\ell$, $|V|$, an almost sure bound on $H_v$, the maximum vertex degree $d_{...
The Aldous gossip process represents the dissemination of information in geographical space as a process of locally deterministic spread, augmented by random long range transmissions. Starting from a single initially informed individual, the proportion of individuals informed follows an almost deterministic path, but for a random time shift, caused by the stochastic behaviour in the very early stages of development. In this paper, it is shown that, even with the extra information available af...
We consider the approximation of the equilibrium of a metapopulation model, in which a finite number of patches are randomly distributed over a bounded subset $\Omega$ of Euclidean space. The approximation is good when a large number of patches contribute to the colonization pressure on any given unoccupied patch, and when the quality of the patches varies little over the length scale determined by the colonization radius. If this is the case, the equilibrium probability of a patch at $z$ bei...
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