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We prove that the class of permutations generated by passing an ordered sequence $12\dots n$ through a stack of depth 2 and an infinite stack in series is in bijection with an unambiguous context-free language, where a permutation of length $n$ is encoded by a string of length $3n$. It follows that the sequence counting the number of permutations of each length has an algebraic generating function. We use the explicit context-free language to compute the generating function: \begin{align*} \s...
We compute estimates for the word metric of Baumslag--Solitar groups in terms of the Britton's lemma normal form. As a corollary, we find lower bounds for the growth rate for the groups $BS(p,q)$, with $1
International audience; For a language $L$, we consider its cyclic closure, and more generally the language $C^{k}(L)$, which consists of all words obtained by partitioning words from $L$ into $k$ factors and permuting them. We prove that the classes of ET0L and EDT0L languages are closed under the operators $C^k$. This both sharpens and generalises Brandstädt's result that if $L$ is context-free then $C^{k}(L)$ is context-sensitive and not context-free in general for $k \geq 3$. We also show...
We add to the classification of groups generated by 3-state automata over a 2 letter alphabet given by Bondarenko et al., by showing that a number of the groups in the classification are non-contracting. We show that the criterion we use to prove a self-similar action is non-contracting also implies that the associated self-similarity graph introduced by Nekrashevych is non-hyperbolic.
M. Picantin introduced the notion of Garside groups of spindle type, generalizing the 3-strand braid group. We show that, for linear Garside groups of spindle type, a normal form and a solution to the conjugacy problem are logspace computable. For linear Garside groups of spindle type with homogenous presentation we compute a geodesic normal form in logspace.
We consider the cyclic closure of a language, and its generalisation to the operators $C^k$ introduced by Brandst\"adt. We prove that the cyclic closure of an indexed language is indexed, and that if $L$ is a context-free language then $C^k(L)$ is indexed.
We generalize the notion of a graph automatic group introduced by Kharlampovich, Khoussainov and Miasnikov (arXiv:1107.3645) by replacing the regular languages in their definition with more powerful language classes. For a fixed language class $\mathcal C$, we call the resulting groups $\mathcal C$-graph automatic. We prove that the class of $\mathcal C$-graph automatic groups is closed under change of generating set, direct and free product for certain classes $\mathcal C$. We show that for ...
For each Baumslag-Solitar group BS(m,n) (m,n nonzero integers), a totally disconnected, locally compact group, G_{m,n}, is constructed so that BS(m,n) is identified with a dense subgroup of G_{m,n}. The scale function on G_{m,n}, a structural invariant for the topological group, is seen to distinguish the parameters m and n to the extent that the set of scale values is {(lcm(m,n)/|m|)^{\rho}, (lcm(m,n)/|n|)^{\rho} | \rho\in N}. It is also shown that G_{m,n} has flat rank 1 when |m|\neq |n| an...
We introduce the notion of the $k$-closure of a group of automorphisms of a locally finite tree, and give several examples of the construction. We show that the $k$-closure satisfies a new property of automorphism groups of trees that generalises Tits' Property $P$. We prove that, apart from some degenerate cases, any non-discrete group acting on a tree with this property contains an abstractly simple subgroup.
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