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The fundamental problem faced in quantum chemistry is the calculation of molecular properties, which are of practical importance in fields ranging from materials science to biochemistry. Within chemical precision, the total energy of a molecule as well as most other properties, can be calculated by solving the Schrodinger equation. However, the computational resources required to obtain exact solutions on a conventional computer generally increase exponentially with the number of atoms involv...
Discoveries of ratios whose values are constant within broad classes of materials have led to many deep physical insights. The Kadowaki-Woods ratio (KWR) compares the temperature dependence of a metal's resistivity to that of its heat capacity; thereby probing the relationship between the electron-electron scattering rate and the renormalisation of the electron mass. However, the KWR takes very different values in different materials. Here we introduce a ratio, closely related to the KWR, tha...
These lecture notes introduce some simple effective Hamiltonians (also known as semi-empirical models) that have widespread applications to solid state and molecular systems. They are aimed as an introduction to a beginning graduate student. I also hope that it may help to break down the divide between the physics and chemistry literatures. After a brief introduction to second quantisation notation, which is used extensively, I focus of the "four H's": the Huckel (or tight binding), Hubbard, ...
We calculate the effective Coulomb interactions between holes in dimers of the organic molecule BEDT-TTF in vacuo. We use density functional theory (DFT) to parameterise Hubbard models for beta and kappa phase organic charge transfer salts. We focus on the intra-dimer Coulomb repulsion, U_d, and the inter-monomer Coulomb repulsion, V_m. We find that U_d = 3.22 \pm 0.09 eV and V_m = 2.71 \pm 0.10 eV for 23 experimental geometries taken from a range of materials in both polymorphs. The quoted e...
We investigate an effective model for organometallic complexes (with potential uses in optoelectronic devices) via both exact diagonalisation and the configuration interaction singles (CIS) approximation. This model captures a number of important features of organometallic complexes, notably the sensitivity of the radiative decay rate to small chemical changes. We find that for large parameter ranges the CIS approximation accurately reproduces the low energy excitations and hence the photophy...
We calculate the effective Coulomb repulsion between electrons/holes, U, and site energy for an isolated BEDT-TTF [bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene] molecule in vacuo. U=4.2 \pm 0.1 eV for 44 experimental geometries taken from a broad range of conformations, polymorphs, anions, temperatures, and pressures (the quoted `error' is one standard deviation). Hence we conclude that U is essentially the same for all of the compounds studied. This shows that the strong (hydrostatic and chemical) ...
Organometallic complexes have potential applications as the optically active components of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). Development of more effective complexes may be aided by understanding their excited state properties. Here we discuss two key theoretical approaches to investigate these complexes: first principles atomistic models and effective Hamiltonian models. We review applications of these methods, such as, determining the nature of the emitti...
Calculating electron-vibration (vibronic) interaction constants is computationally expensive. For molecules containing N nuclei it involves solving the Schrödinger equation for Ο(3N) nuclear configurations in addition to the cost of determining the vibrational modes. We show that quantum vibronic interactions are proportional to the classical atomic forces induced when the total charge of the system is varied. This enables the calculation of vibronic interaction constants from O(1) solutions ...
We review the interplay of frustration and strong electronic correlations in quasi-two-dimensional organic charge transfer salts, such as k-(BEDT-TTF)_2X and Et_nMe_{4-n}Pn[Pd(dmit)2]2. These two forces drive a range of exotic phases including spin liquids, valence bond crystals, pseudogapped metals, and unconventional superconductivity. Of particular interest is that in several materials there is a direct transition as a function of pressure from a spin liquid Mott insulating state to a supe...
We investigate an effective model Hamiltonian for organometallic complexes that are widely used in optoelectronic devices. The two most important parameters in the model are $J$, the effective exchange interaction between the $\pi$ and $\pi^*$ orbitals of the ligands, and $\epsilon^*$, the renormalized energy gap between the highest occupied orbitals on the metal and on the ligand. We find that the degree of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) character of the lowest triplet state is stron...
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