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We demonstrate that the Schr\"odinger equation for two electrons on a ring, which is the usual paradigm to model quantum rings, is solvable in closed form for particular values of the radius. We show that both polynomial and irrational solutions can be found for any value of the angular momentum and that the singlet and triplet manifolds, which are degenerate, have distinct geometric phases. We also study the nodal structure associated with these two-electron states.
We report benchmark results for one-dimensional (1D) atomic and molecular systems interacting via the Coulomb operator $|x|^{-1}$. Using various wavefunction-type approaches, such as Hartree-Fock theory, second- and third-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory and explicitly correlated calculations, we study the ground state of atoms with up to ten electrons as well as small diatomic and triatomic molecules containing up to two electrons. A detailed analysis of the 1D helium-like ions is...
Using the spherical geometry, we introduce a novel model to study excitons confined in a three-dimensional space, which offers unparalleled mathematical simplicity while retaining much of the key physics. This new model consists of an exciton trapped on the 3-sphere (i.e. the surface of a four-dimensional ball), and provides a unified treatment of Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons. Moreover, we show that one can determine, for particular values of the dielectric constant $\epsilon$, the close...
We introduce a generalization (gLDA) of the traditional Local Density Approximation (LDA) within density functional theory. The gLDA uses both the one-electron Seitz radius $\rs$ and a two-electron hole curvature parameter $\eta$ at each point in space. The gLDA reduces to the LDA when applied to the infinite homogeneous electron gas but, unlike the LDA, is is also exact for finite uniform electron gases on spheres. We present an explicit gLDA functional for the correlation energy of electron...
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e.~the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems, and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. ...
The form of the wave function at three-electron coalescence points is examined for several spin states using an alternative method to the usual Fock expansion. We find that, in two- and three-dimensional systems, the non-analytical nature of the wave function is characterized by the appearance of logarithmic terms, reminiscent of those that appear as both electrons approach the nucleus of the helium atom. The explicit form of these singularities is given in terms of the interelectronic distan...
We discuss the model of a $D$-dimensional confined electron gas in which the particles are trapped by a harmonic potential. In particular, we study the non-interacting kinetic and exchange energies of finite-size inhomogeneous systems, and compare the resulting Thomas-Fermi and Dirac coefficients with various uniform electron gas paradigms. We show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the properties of this model are identical to those of the $D$-dimensional Fermi gas.
The uniform electron gas or UEG (also known as jellium) is one of the most fundamental models in condensed-matter physics and the cornerstone of the most popular approximation --- the local-density approximation --- within density-functional theory. In this article, we provide a detailed review on the energetics of the UEG at high, intermediate and low densities, and in one, two and three dimensions. We also report the best quantum Monte Carlo and symmetry-broken Hartree-Fock calculations ava...
We introduce a new paradigm for finite and infinite strict-one-dimensional uniform electron gases. In this model, $n$ electrons are confined to a ring and interact via a bare Coulomb operator. In the high-density limit (small-$r_s$, where $r_s$ is the Seitz radius), we find that the reduced correlation energy is $\Ec(r_s,n) = \eps^{(2)}(n) + O(r_s)$, and we report explicit expressions for $\eps^{(2)}(n)$. In the thermodynamic (large-$n$) limit of this, we show that $\Ec(r_s) = - \pi^2/360 + O...
We introduce the two-particle probability density $X(x)$ of $x=\bm{r}_{12}\cdot\bm{p}_{12}=\left(\bm{r}_1-\bm{r}_2\right) \cdot \left(\bm{p}_1-\bm{p}_2\right)$. We show how to derive $X(x)$, which we call the Posmom intracule, from the many-particle wavefunction. We contrast it with the Dot intracule [Y. A. Bernard, D. L. Crittenden, P. M. W. Gill, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, 3447 (2008)] which can be derived from the Wigner distribution and show the relationships between the Posmom intracul...
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