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The formation of stars and planets

The formation of stars and planets
ARC | Discovery Projects
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  • Signatures of fast and slow magnetohydrodynamic shocks in turbulent molecular clouds

    Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark (2015)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    The character of star formation is intimately related to the supersonic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent dynamics of the molecular clouds in which stars form. A significant amount of the turbulent energy dissipates in low velocity shocks. Fast and slow MHD shocks differ in how they compress and heat the molecular gas, and so their radiative signatures reveal distinct physical conditions. We use a two-fluid model to compare one-dimensional fast and slow MHD shocks propagating at low speeds ...

    Tables of phase functions, opacities, albedos, equilibrium temperatures, and radiative accelerations of dust grains in exoplanets

    Budaj, Jan; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Salmeron, Raquel; Hubeny, Ivan (2015)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    There has been growing observational evidence for the presence of condensates in the atmospheres and/or comet-like tails of extrasolar planets. As a result, systematic and homogeneous tables of dust properties are useful in order to facilitate further observational and theoretical studies. In this paper we present calculations and analysis of non-isotropic phase functions, asymmetry parameter (mean cosine of the scattering angle), absorption and scattering opacities, single scattering albedos...

    Search for a circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    Garai, Z.; Zhou, G.; Budaj, J.; Stellingwerf, R. F. (2014)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    A unique short-period Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by Rappaport et al. (2012). This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material - comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of...

    Multi-epoch Sub-arcsecond [Fe II] Spectroimaging of the DG Tau Outflows with NIFS. I. First data epoch

    White, Marc C.; McGregor, Peter J.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Salmeron, Raquel; Beck, Tracy L. (2014)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    Investigating the outflows emanating from young stellar objects (YSOs) on sub-arcsecond scales provides important clues to the nature of the underlying accretion-ejection process occurring near the central protostar. We have investigated the structures and kinematics of the outflows driven by the YSO DG Tauri, using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini North. The blueshifted outflow shows two distinct components in [Fe II] 1.644 micron emission, which are separated u...

    Multi-epoch Sub-arcsecond [Fe II] Spectroimaging of the DG Tau Outflows with NIFS. II. On the Nature of the Bipolar Outflow Asymmetry

    White, Marc C; Bicknell, Geoffrey V; McGregor, Peter J; Salmeron, Raquel (2014)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    The origin of bipolar outflow asymmetry in young stellar objects (YSOs) remains poorly understood. It may be due to an intrinsically asymmetric outflow launch mechanism, or it may be caused by the effects of the ambient medium surrounding the YSO. Answering this question is an important step in understanding outflow launching. We have investigated the bipolar outflows driven by the T Tauri star DG Tauri on scales of hundreds of AU, using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on...

    Turbulent mixing layers in supersonic protostellar outflows, with application to DG Tauri

    White, Marc C.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Salmeron, Raquel; McGregor, Peter J. (2015)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    Turbulent entrainment processes may play an important role in the outflows from young stellar objects at all stages of their evolution. In particular, lateral entrainment of ambient material by high-velocity, well-collimated protostellar jets may be the cause of the multiple emission-line velocity components observed in the microjet-scale outflows driven by classical T Tauri stars. Intermediate-velocity outflow components may be emitted by a turbulent, shock- excited mixing layer along the bo...

    Accretion in giant planet circumplanetary disks

    Keith, Sarah L.; Wardle, Mark (2014)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    During the final growth phase of giant planets, accretion is thought to be controlled by a surrounding circumplanetary disk. Current astrophysical accretion disk models rely on hydromagnetic turbulence or gravitoturbulence as the source of effective viscosity within the disk. However, the magnetically-coupled accreting region in these models is so limited that the disk may not support inflow at all radii, or at the required rate. Here, we examine the conditions needed for self-consistent accr...

    Transport and Accretion in Planet-Forming Disks

    Turner, N. J.; Fromang, S.; Gammie, C.; Klahr, H.; Lesur, G.; Wardle, M.; Bai, X. -N. (2014)
    Projects: EC | PETADISK (258729), ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792)
    Planets appear to form in environments shaped by the gas flowing through protostellar disks to the central young stars. The flows in turn are governed by orbital angular momentum transfer. In this chapter we summarize current understanding of the transfer processes best able to account for the flows, including magneto-rotational turbulence, magnetically-launched winds, self-gravitational instability and vortices driven by hydrodynamical instabilities. For each in turn we outline the major ach...

    Magnetic diffusion driven shear instability of solar flux tubes

    Macroscopic gas motions are widespread throughout the solar atmosphere and shearing motions couple to the non--ideal effects, destabilising low frequency fluctuations in the medium. The origin of this non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability lies in the collisional coupling of the neutral particles to the magnetized plasma in the presence of a sheared background flow. Unsurprisingly, the maximum growth rate and most unstable wavenumber depend on the flow gradient and ambient diffusivities. T...

    High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Budaj, J.; Dominik, Martin; Figuera Jaimes, Roberto Jose; Haugbølle, T.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; von Essen, C.; Schmidt, R. W.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.;... (2015)
    Projects: ARC | The formation of stars and planets (DP120101792), EC | ISANDAL (268421)
    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultrashort period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit mid-point is now measured to an accuracy of 4.8 s, versus 67.4 s in the discovery paper, aiding future searches for orbital decay. With the help of published spectroscopic measurements and theoretical stellar models, w...
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