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We classify the pairwise transitive 2-designs, that is, 2-designs such that a group of automorphisms is transitive on the following five sets of ordered pairs: point-pairs, incident point-block pairs, non-incident point-block pairs, intersecting block-pairs and non-intersecting block-pairs. These 2-designs fall into two classes: the symmetric ones and the quasisymmetric ones. The symmetric examples include the symmetric designs from projective geometry, the 11-point biplane, the Higman-Sims d...
In 1968, John Thompson proved that a finite group $G$ is solvable if and only if every $2$-generator subgroup of $G$ is solvable. In this paper, we prove that solvability of a finite group $G$ is guaranteed by a seemingly weaker condition: $G$ is solvable if for all conjugacy classes $C$ and $D$ of $G$, \emph{there exist} $x\in C$ and $y\in D$ for which $\gen{x,y}$ is solvable. We also prove the following property of finite nonabelian simple groups, which is the key tool for our proof of the ...
For a graph $\Gamma$, a positive integer $s$ and a subgroup $G\leq \Aut(\Gamma)$, we prove that $G$ is transitive on the set of $s$-arcs of $\Gamma$ if and only if $\Gamma$ has girth at least $2(s-1)$ and $G$ is transitive on the set of $(s-1)$-geodesics of its line graph. As applications, we first prove that the only non-complete locally cyclic $2$-geodesic transitive graphs are the complete multipartite graph $K_{3[2]}$ and the icosahedron. Secondly we classify 2-geodesic transitive graphs ...
In this paper we introduce and study a family $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ of abelian subgroups of $\GL_n(q)$ covering every element of $\GL_n(q)$. We show that $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ contains all the centralisers of cyclic matrices and equality holds if $q>n$. Also, for $q>2$, we prove a simple closed formula for the size of $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ and give an upper bound if $q=2$. A subset $X$ of a finite group $G$ is said to be pairwise non-commuting if $xy\not=yx$, for distinct elements $x, y$ in $X$. As an...
Let $\Gamma$ be a connected $G$-vertex-transitive graph, let $v$ be a vertex of $\Gamma$ and let $L=G_v^{\Gamma(v)}$ be the permutation group induced by the action of the vertex-stabiliser $G_v$ on the neighbourhood $\Gamma(v)$. Then $(\Gamma,G)$ is said to be \emph{locally-$L$}. A transitive permutation group $L$ is \emph{graph-restrictive} if there exists a constant $c(L)$ such that, for every locally-$L$ pair $(\Gamma,G)$ and an arc $(u,v)$ of $\Gamma$, the inequality $|G_{uv}|\leq c(L)$ h...
We present a one sided Monte--Carlo algorithm which constructs a long root $\sl_2(q)$-subgroup in $X/O_p(X)$, where $X$ is a black-box group and $X/O_p(X)$ is a finite simple group of Lie type defined over a field of odd order $q=p^k > 3$ for some $k\geqslant 1$. Our algorithm is based on the analysis of the structure of centralizers of involutions and can be viewed as a computational version of Aschbacher's Classical Involution Theorem. We also present an algorithm which determines whether t...
We consider a code to be a subset of the vertex set of a Hamming graph. The set of $s$-neighbours of a code is the set of vertices, not in the code, at distance $s$ from some codeword, but not distance less than $s$ from any codeword. A $2$-neighbour transitive code is a code which admits a group $X$ of automorphisms which is transitive on the $s$-neighbours, for $s=1,2$, and transitive on the code itself. We give a classification of $2$-neighbour transitive codes, with minimum distance $\del...
We consider a code to be a subset of the vertices of a Hamming graph and the set of neighbours are those vertices not in the code, which are distance one from some codeword. An elusive code is a code for which the automorphism group of the set of neighbours is larger than that of the code itself. It is an open question as to whether, for an elusive code, the alphabet size always divides the length of the code. We provide a sufficient condition to ensure that this occurs. Finally, we present a...
A k-composition of n is a sequence of length k of positive integers summing up to n. In this paper, we investigate the number of k-compositions of n satisfying two natural coprimality conditions. Namely, we first give an exact asymptotic formula for the number of k-compositions having the first summand coprime to the others. Then, we estimate the number of k-compositions whose summands are all pairwise coprime.
Constant composition codes have been proposed as suitable coding schemes to solve the narrow band and impulse noise problems associated with powerline communication, while at the same time maintaining a constant power output. In particular, a certain class of constant composition codes called frequency permutation arrays have been suggested as ideal, in some sense, for these purposes. In this paper we characterise a family of neighbour transitive codes in Hamming graphs in which frequency per...
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