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We classify the pairwise transitive 2-designs, that is, 2-designs such that a group of automorphisms is transitive on the following five sets of ordered pairs: point-pairs, incident point-block pairs, non-incident point-block pairs, intersecting block-pairs and non-intersecting block-pairs. These 2-designs fall into two classes: the symmetric ones and the quasisymmetric ones. The symmetric examples include the symmetric designs from projective geometry, the 11-point biplane, the Higman-Sims d...
For a graph $\Gamma$, a positive integer $s$ and a subgroup $G\leq \Aut(\Gamma)$, we prove that $G$ is transitive on the set of $s$-arcs of $\Gamma$ if and only if $\Gamma$ has girth at least $2(s-1)$ and $G$ is transitive on the set of $(s-1)$-geodesics of its line graph. As applications, we first prove that the only non-complete locally cyclic $2$-geodesic transitive graphs are the complete multipartite graph $K_{3[2]}$ and the icosahedron. Secondly we classify 2-geodesic transitive graphs ...
In 1968, John Thompson proved that a finite group $G$ is solvable if and only if every $2$-generator subgroup of $G$ is solvable. In this paper, we prove that solvability of a finite group $G$ is guaranteed by a seemingly weaker condition: $G$ is solvable if for all conjugacy classes $C$ and $D$ of $G$, \emph{there exist} $x\in C$ and $y\in D$ for which $\gen{x,y}$ is solvable. We also prove the following property of finite nonabelian simple groups, which is the key tool for our proof of the ...
In this paper we introduce and study a family $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ of abelian subgroups of $\GL_n(q)$ covering every element of $\GL_n(q)$. We show that $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ contains all the centralisers of cyclic matrices and equality holds if $q>n$. Also, for $q>2$, we prove a simple closed formula for the size of $\mathcal{A}_n(q)$ and give an upper bound if $q=2$. A subset $X$ of a finite group $G$ is said to be pairwise non-commuting if $xy\not=yx$, for distinct elements $x, y$ in $X$. As an...
Let $\Gamma$ be a connected $G$-vertex-transitive graph, let $v$ be a vertex of $\Gamma$ and let $L=G_v^{\Gamma(v)}$ be the permutation group induced by the action of the vertex-stabiliser $G_v$ on the neighbourhood $\Gamma(v)$. Then $(\Gamma,G)$ is said to be \emph{locally-$L$}. A transitive permutation group $L$ is \emph{graph-restrictive} if there exists a constant $c(L)$ such that, for every locally-$L$ pair $(\Gamma,G)$ and an arc $(u,v)$ of $\Gamma$, the inequality $|G_{uv}|\leq c(L)$ h...
We present a one sided Monte--Carlo algorithm which constructs a long root $\sl_2(q)$-subgroup in $X/O_p(X)$, where $X$ is a black-box group and $X/O_p(X)$ is a finite simple group of Lie type defined over a field of odd order $q=p^k > 3$ for some $k\geqslant 1$. Our algorithm is based on the analysis of the structure of centralizers of involutions and can be viewed as a computational version of Aschbacher's Classical Involution Theorem. We also present an algorithm which determines whether t...
A k-composition of n is a sequence of length k of positive integers summing up to n. In this paper, we investigate the number of k-compositions of n satisfying two natural coprimality conditions. Namely, we first give an exact asymptotic formula for the number of k-compositions having the first summand coprime to the others. Then, we estimate the number of k-compositions whose summands are all pairwise coprime.
We consider a \emph{code} to be a subset of the vertex set of a \emph{Hamming graph}. In this setting a \emph{neighbour} of the code is a vertex which differs in exactly one entry from some codeword. This paper examines codes with the property that some group of automorphisms acts transitively on the \emph{set of neighbours} of the code. We call these codes \emph{neighbour transitive}. We obtain sufficient conditions for a neighbour transitive group to fix the code setwise. Moreover, we const...
We consider a code to be a subset of the vertex set of a Hamming graph. The set of $s$-neighbours of a code is the set of vertices, not in the code, at distance $s$ from some codeword, but not distance less than $s$ from any codeword. A $2$-neighbour transitive code is a code which admits a group $X$ of automorphisms which is transitive on the $s$-neighbours, for $s=1,2$, and transitive on the code itself. We give a classification of $2$-neighbour transitive codes, with minimum distance $\del...
Constant composition codes have been proposed as suitable coding schemes to solve the narrow band and impulse noise problems associated with powerline communication, while at the same time maintaining a constant power output. In particular, a certain class of constant composition codes called frequency permutation arrays have been suggested as ideal, in some sense, for these purposes. In this paper we characterise a family of neighbour transitive codes in Hamming graphs in which frequency per...
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