Publisher: Національний Авиаційний Університет
Subjects: law of international cooperation, the general obligation of States to cooperate, cooperation for development., право международного сотрудничества, общее обязательство государств сотрудничать, сотрудничество ради развития, право міжнародного співробітництва, загальне зобов’язання держав співпрацювати, співробітництво заради розвитку, УДК 341.1/8 (045)
This article presents the scientific and legal analysis of the category of «the right of international cooperation». The issues of the existence in contemporary international law of the general obligation to cooperate have been analyzed. The positivist and natural law approaches to justify the obligation of states to cooperate have been highlighted. The main sources of international law, establishing the obligation of States to cooperate have been pointed out and their critical analyses have been conducted. The cooperation as to international commons has been studied in particular concerning the use and disposal of the international seabed area, Antarctica and outer space. English abstract O. Meschia The Law of international cooperation. The term «law of cooperation» has been developed as a counterpart to the term "law of coexistence", the latter describing the traditional modern – International law. The main feature of such international law of cooperation is the obligation of States to cooperate with each other. The term cooperation has never been defined by an international treaty or international decision. Even the – The Declaration on Friendly Relations of 1970 (UN GA Res. 2625(XXV)) proceeds from a preconceived terminology. An analysis, however, of this – declaration demonstrates that the term describes the voluntary coordinated action of two or more States which takes place under a legal regime and serves a specific objective. To this extent it marks the effort of States to accomplish an object by joint action, where the activity of a single State cannot achieve the same result. Thus, the duty to cooperate means the obligation to enter into such coordinated action so as to achieve a specific goal. The significance and value of cooperation depends upon its goal. Since cooperation as such has no inherent value, the term «cooperation» used in the context of the law of cooperation therefore means cooperation among States for the purposes of development to increase the social welfare of the world community. Cooperation has. to be distinguished from interdependence and solidarity. Interdependence does not describe obligations or rights to act but rather the factual situation of mutual dependence among States. Thus interdependence is a sociological term without direct legal consequences though a steadily increasing interdependence of States leads to an intensification of cooperation. Solidarity means the obligation of an individual State to take into consideration in its policy the interests of other States/or their subjects or the common interests of the world community. It envisages the equalization of States by bilateral or multilateral institutionalized cooperation. In so far solidarity means the intensification of cooperation for development. The objective of developmental cooperation can be twofold. It may envisage the promotion of the interests of all the States involved, as when a given activity can only be undertaken effectively by the States working together or when community interests require joint action. Cooperation may, however, further only the interests of one State or some specific group of States such as the – developing States. In such a case the supplying State may act either voluntarily or under a legal obligation, which may stem from bilateral or multilateral agreements and is normally limited as to its scope. To this extent, all international organizations represent areas where the duty to cooperate has been established and institutionalized. Such cooperation may serve the interest of all relevant States parties or it may benefit only a special group of them. The latter, for example, is the case in some recently established international organizations such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development, though most international organizations, such as the International Telecommunication Union, the Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, have to some degree undertaken to foster the development of developing countries. Apart from those areas where the obligation to cooperate has been established through international agreement, it is a central question of international law whether a general obligation to cooperate has already emerged in international law. If the term "cooperation" is to be understood only as "to enter into contact", such an obligation has to be regarded as being part of international law. This, however, has not precluded States from occasionally trying to isolate themselves from the rest of the community of States. A far more crucial question is whether under international law a general obligation exists to cooperate for development. It is evident that insofar as such envisaged cooperation only benefits one side, a general duty to cooperate will have a distributive effect, tending to reduce the economic and social differences between States. Although the demand for the acceptance of the existence of a State obligation to cooperate for development is of recent origin, such an obligation traces back in part to the beginning of international law. Legal obligations for mutual cooperation among States were already recognized in legal writings as well as in the practice of international law before the principle of ~ sovereignty and its protection became the key element of international law in the 19th century. Vattel, for example formulated in 1758: «The first general law, which is to be found in the very end of the society of Nations, is that each Nation should contribute as far as it can to the happiness and advancement of other Nations».
В статье проведен научно-правовой анализ категории «право международного сотрудничества». Рассмотрены вопросы о существовании в международном праве общего обязательства сотрудничать. Выделены позитивистский и естественно-правовой подходы к обоснованию существования обязательства государств сотрудничать. Выделены основные источники международного права, устанавливающие обязательства государств сотрудничать, и осуществлен их критический анализ. Кроме того, рассмотрен вопрос о сотрудничестве государств по использованию и распоряжению международным районом морского дна, Антарктикой и космическим пространством.
У статті проведено науково-правовий аналіз категорії «право міжнародного співробітництва». Розглянуто питання про існування в міжнародному праві загального зобов’язання співпрацювати. Виділено позитивістський та природно-правовий підходи до обґрунтування існування зобов’язання держав співпрацювати. Виокремлено основні джерела міжнародного права, що встановлюють зобов’язання держав співпрацювати, та здійснено їх критичний аналіз. Крім того, розглянуто питання про співробітництво держав щодо користування та розпорядження міжнародним районом морського дна, Антарктикою та космічним простором.
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