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Dmytrah, O. (2016)
Publisher: Національний Авиаційний Університет
Types: Article
Subjects: Architectural space; university; campus; cultural object; interuniversity center., 727, Aрхитектурное пространство; университет; кампус; объект культуры; межуниверситетский центр., простір; університет; кампус; об’єкт культури; міжуніверситетський центр., .656727.056
The article highlights the genesis and the development stages of the cultural objects typology in the space-planning structure of the universities around the world. The conceptual term “university” dates back to the Middle Ages, when chapels and libraries were the main cultural objects. The Renaissance period introduced the special meeting and lecture halls in the shape of amphitheaters into the structure of universities. The Baroque is characterized by the creation of music halls and theatre buildings at the universities. The next development period is connected with the colonial universities of America. The autonomous multifunctional buildings located in the open landscape became the embodiment of the colonial college. In the late XVIII century, the building project of “academic village” of Virginia University was implemented. It represented the brand new paradigm of designing educational, public and cultural space. The idea of “science city” originated from the XIX century and presupposed an integrated approach to designing university terrains with the neo-Gothic architecture being the stylistic dominant. At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, English and later on American colleges started designing the first student union buildings. In the middle of the previous century, the idea of building students clubs with a wide range of functions and facilities depending on the socialization and college needs became popular in the USA. In the 90’s, the idea of creating interuniversity cultural center captivated the minds of social activists. В статье освещены генеза и этапы развития типологии объектов культуры в объемно-планировочной структуре университетов. Проведен обзор и анализ литературных источников, касающихся тематики формирования архитектуры зданий и кампусов университетов мира. Установлено хронологические рамки исследования, которые определяют период от 1322 до сих пор. В работе проведено условное разделение на этапы развития, а именно: период Середньвиччя, эпоха Возрождения, Барокко, возникновение Колониальных университетов, период Неоклассики,, Неоготика и Международный стиль. К каждому из приведенных этапов подано характерные объемно-планировочные и типологические признаки объектов культуры при университетах. У статі висвітлено типології об’єктів культури в об’ємно-планувальній структурі . Проведено огляд джерел, що стосуються тематики формування архітектури будівель та кампусів університетів світу. Встановлено хронологічні межі дослідження, що окреслюють планувальні та типологічні ознаки об’єктів культури при університетах.
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