Publisher: Національний Авіаційний Університет
Subjects: Тарас Шевченко; традиційна культура; фольклор; етнографія; поезія, Тарас Шевченко; традиционная культура; фольклор; этнография; поэзия.
У статті порушено питання фольклорно-етнографічних дослідженьТараса Шевченка. Наголошено, що творчість Шевченка є органічнимпоєднанням фольклору та етнографії, а в цілому поезія митця булавитвором літератури високого художнього рівня, яка активно формувалаукраїнську національну ідентичність.
В статье поднимаются вопросы фольклорно-этнографическихисследований Тараса Шевченко. Отмечено, что в творчестве Т. Шевченкоорганично сочетаются фольклор и этнография, а в целом же поэзияКобзаря является произведением литературы высокого художественногоуровня, которая активно формировала украинскую национальнуюидентичность.
The article raises the question of folklore and ethnographic research ofTaras Shevchenko. It‘s been emphasized, that Shevchenko‘s art is naturalcombination of folklore and ethnography, and artist‘s poetry was a masterpieceof high artistic level literature as a whole, which actively formed the Ukrainiannational identity.Among the brilliant constellation figures of Ukrainian culture Shevchenkohas a special place. Genious poet and prominent painter, novelist and playwrighter, extraordinary musician, thinker, philosopher, historian, ethnographer,folklorist.The start of Taras Shevchenko‘s literary activity falls between originUkrainian folklore and ethnography, the emergence of the first collections offolk poetry, in the heyday of Ukrainian romanticism. All this could not affectthe outlook of the poet, and therefore his art system.Creativity of T. Shevchenko rooted folk elements. Penetration into thedepths of people‘s life, a reflection of people‘s views and aspirations of thepeople fighting for a free and happy life inherent nation works ofT. Shevchenko. The sources writer‘s work are the reality of that time, folkloreand literary tradition. At the same time the folk song was the mother of hispoetry and one of the most fundamental features of the «Kobzar».T. Shevchenko believed that literature can flourish only if it is based on agreat life experience and artistic people. However, recognizing the life-givingpower of people‘s words, the poet never tolerate folk-song samples of his workunchanged. We can say that they were his material for the realization of own life experiences, poetic inspiration prerequisite to realize creative method. Heworked in various genres of folk-song creativity. The original use of folk-songand literary traditions at the same time is a characteristic feature of the TarasShevchenko‘s idiolect.The poet artistically interpreted folk demonology. In the works of«Kniazhna», «Topolia», «Prychynna», «Lileya», «Rusalka» are in fact all themain characters Ukrainian demonology used folk stories about turning girlsinto a tree, the mermaids, ghouls, witches, on signs and divination, dead.In painter and literary creativity of T. Shevchenko primary attention is thedescription, interpretation and artistic reproduction of phenomena and spiritualculture, including customs, folk festivals. Among them related customs andrituals, and in particular the wedding. Wedding sacred ceremonies particularlyattracted the attention of the poet and reflected in his literary and art works(«Nazar Stodolia», «Najmychka»).T. Shevchenko reliably and perceptively describes other nationalmanifestations of family life (fidelity, motherhood, particularly the role ofwomen in the family and raising children). The poet high reverence saysmother and elevates it to the level of national shrines.Ethnographic accurately marked and Shevchenko descriptions families,christenings and nepotism.The artistic heritage of the poet contains diverse ethnographic material onpublic life, common law Ukrainian. In scientific researches he described theforms of free time and of working together as vechornytsi, toloka.During the ethnographic journeys the poet carefully collected legends andtales, folk studied omens and beliefs. These ideological aspects of folk-paganspirituality reflected in his poems and romantic poems. They poet recreated thecharacteristic feature of Ukrainian worldview by which nature is not just anattribute of the environment and the living, spiritual character of national lifethat organically accord with the man.Consequently, a wide range of ethnic and cultural phenomena, reproducedin the creative heritage of the artist, it can be considered not only as an artisticand literary acquisition of national culture, but also as a source of ethnographicstudy of people.
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