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Межжеріна, Ганна (2015)
Publisher: Національний Авіаційний Університет
Languages: Ukrainian
Types: Unknown
Subjects: авіаційний термін; композит; морфема; семантика,, УДК 811. 45, авиационный термин; композит; морфема, aviation term; compounds; morpheme; semantics
Стаття присвячена особливостям перекладу українською мовою англійських авіаційних термінів-композитів з корінними лексемними морфемами after-, down-, off- тощо. З‘ясовано закономірності структурної інтеграції компонентів англійських та українських авіаційних термінів- композитів, види структурно-семантичних трансформацій при перекладі. Джерело матеріалу – словники авіаційних термінів та оригінальні наукові тексти (субмова авіації). Статья посвящена особенностям перевода на укранский язык английских авиационных терминов-композитов с исконными лексемными морфемами (after-, down-, off- и др.). Выяснены закономерности структурной интеграции компонентов терминов-композитов, виды структурно-семантических трансформаций при переводе. Источник материала – словари авиационных терминов и оригинальные научные тексты (подъязык авиации) The article deals with the translation of aviation terms-compounds with original morphemes from English into Ukrainian. The regularities of structural integration of components in English and Ukrainian aviation terms-composites were found. The types of structural and semantic transformations in translation were analyzed. The material was taken from dictionaries of aviation terms and original scientific texts (sublanguages aviation). Revealed that original morphemes after-, down-, off-, -out, over-, self-, -up are involved in the formation of English aviation terms composites. There is a lack of correlative phonetic equivalents for these morphemes in Ukrainian language and also thanks to their origin these morphemes are polysemantic. These factors make it impossible to use some kinds and techniques of translation. Polysemantic character of original English morphemes defines the complicated semantic structure of lexical units, coexistence of lexical-semantic variants with similar meaning. It requires from a translator not only to involve the wider context, but also to have specialized knowledge in the field of aviation. The correlation of original and borrowed elements finds expression in the presence of two equivalents in the Ukrainian aviation terminology – native (pre-Slavic origin) and borrowing (Greek or Latin origin) morphemes that are close or absolute synonyms. This leads to the formation of the lexemes that have a common root and synonymous prefixes. However, they can not qualified always as terms-variants and can not be used interchangeably. The original and borrowed morphemes in English aviation terminology system are in close synonymous relations, but the free interchange of morphemes in the text is almost impossible for various reasons. In most cases there are some factors that affect the choice of variants. English aviation composite term changes its categorial belonging depending on whether it's used as a standalone term or used as a part of terminological word combination. In English aviation terminology system the synonymy of original and borrowed morphemes creates serious difficulties for a translator. The morpheme anti- can enter into synonymic relations with prefix de-. In some cases they have one and the same Ukrainian equivalent. For example, in the recipient language the term anti-icing has two equivalents – антиобмерзання and протиобліднювальний. Therefore when translating the term anti-icing, the translator makes a choice considering the syntactic context. The search of Ukrainian equivalents to the English aviation composite terms, which include the morphemes, happens taking into account specificity of the terminological units formation in Ukrainian and English. Translator must consider the semantic relation between the constituents, the terms parameters system and the peculiarities of formants which are typical for terminological models.
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