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Тімашова, Вікторія Михайлівна; Національний авіаційний університет; Гусєв, Микола Вікторович; Національний авіаційний університет (2015)
Publisher: Національний Авиаційний Університет
Languages: Ukrainian
Types: Unknown
Subjects: державний імунітет; транзитна держава; абсолютний імунітет; функціональний (обмежений) імунітет; міжнародне приватне право; Конвенція ООН; Європейська конвенція; комерційна діяльність; відмова від імунітету, 341.1(477) [342.534.2], государственный иммунитет; транзитное государство; абсолютный иммунитет; функциональный (ограниченный) иммунитет; международное частное право; Конвенция ООН; Европейская конвенция; коммерческая деятельность; отказ от иммунитета, state immunity; transition state; absolute immunity; restrictive immunity; private international law; UN Convention; European Convention; commercial activity; waiver of immunity
З’ясовано поняття державного імунітету, взято до уваги дві основні теорії державного імунітету, через призму яких проаналізовано сучасний стан державного імунітету України як учасниці міжнародного приватного права. Запропоновано шляхи розв’язання проблеми транзиту (переходу) України як суб’єкта міжнародного приватного права зі стану пострадянського абсолютного державного імунітету до сучасного функціонального Определено понятие государственного иммунитета, принято во внимание две основных теории государственного иммунитета, через призму которых проанализировано современное состояние государственного иммунитета Украины как участницы международного частного права. Предложены пути решения проблемы транзита (перехода) Украины как субъекта международного частного права из состояния постсоветского абсолютного государственного иммунитета к современному функциональному. The article deals with the analysis of national legislation on granting to a foreign state the jurisdictional immunities in the sphere of private legal relations in a legislation and in international documents, especially in the UN Convention on jurisdictional immunities of states and their property of 2004, the theory of international private law, and also the determination of the prospects of development of the legislation of Ukraine in this sphere. The special attention is focused on the issue of the determination of persons, who are entitled to refer for such immunities, the approaches of distinguishing of «acta jure imperii» and «acta jure gestionis», determination of the circumstances, under which the state gets immunity from enforcement measures. The role of further development of the theory of the restrictive immunity and the harmonization in the practice of the states-members in UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property, which are the first universal international instrument in the sphere of jurisdictional immunities of states, is examined. Taking into account the modern theoretical basis of granting the immunity to the state in the private legal relations and the latest practice of states, the necessity of changing the legislation of Ukraine for using the positions of the theory for restrictive immunities by adopting a special law on immunity of foreign state, are grounded. The specificity of calling of Ukraine as the participant of the international private law to international law account is analyzed in the article. The conception of solving the problem of state immunity in Ukraine (the theory of absolute and functional immunity) has received further development and additional argumentation. It is grounded that putting into the practice the theory of absolute and functional immunity in Ukraine doesn’t favour the defence of its interests from actions of foreign courts that support the theory of functional immunity. It is suggested to ratify the European convention about immunity of states from 16.05.1972 (Basel) and bring the articles of legal acts of Ukraine into accord with principles of the theory of functional immunity. The memoir contains concrete proposals for perfection of Ukrainian legislation, which regulates relations of the state of Ukraine as the participant of the international private law and determines its status as the participant of the international private relations.
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