Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Bowman, Kenneth P. (2011)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Tellus A
Languages: English
Types: Article
A two-level zonally-averaged seasonal energy balance model with separate land and ocean temperatures and an explicit surface energy budget is used to study the effects of the snowfall rate on the extent of snow cover and ice sheets. Sensitivity experiments are performed both with and without ice sheets and with two different snowfall parameterizations. When snowfall rates are prescribed independent of latitude, higher snowfall rates increase the area of snow cover but reduce the sensitivity of the snow line to changes of the solar constant. To eliminate arbitrary assumptions about the snowfall rate, a relationship between the atmospheric transports of water vapour and sensible heat is derived and tested against observations. The relationship obtained is used to predict the meriodional transport of water vapour in the model, from which the precipitation and snowfall are calculated. The response of the hydrologic cycle to changes of the solar constant is qualitatively similar to that found in general circulation models. The snow line is more sensitive with the predicted precipitation than with the prescribed precipitation because the predicted precipitation rate increases toward the equator. When ice sheets are included, they are larger than permanent snow cover under the same conditions because the cold surface temperatures at high elevations on the ice sheet inhibit melting. Feedback effects of the ice sheets are small, in part because they are limited to 30% of a latitude circle in this model.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1985.tb00424.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Birchfield, G. E., Weertman, J . and Lunde, A. T. 1982. A model study of the role of high-latitudetopography in the climatic response to orbital insolation anomalies. J . Atmos. Sci. 39, 7 1-87.
    • Bowman, K. P. 1982. Sensitivity of an annual mean diffusive energy balance model with an ice sheet. J . Geophys. Res. 87,9661-9674.
    • Budyko, M. I. 1969. The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the earth. Tellus 21. 6 I 1-6 19.
    • Gates, W. L. 1976. The numerical simulation of ice-age climate with a global general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1844-1873.
    • Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J. and Shackleton, N. J . 1976. Variations in the earth's orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages. Science 194. 1121-1 132.
    • Held, I. M. and Suarez, M. J. 1974. Simple albedo feedback models of the icecaps. Tellus 26, 6 13-629.
    • Held, I. M. and Suarez, M. J. 1978. A two-level primitive equation atmospheric model designed for climatic sensitivity experiments. J.Atmos. Sci. 35, 206-229.
    • Held, I. M., Linder, D. 1. and Suarez, M. J. 1981. Albedo feedback, the meridional structure of the effective heat diffusivity. and climatic sensitivity: results from dynamic and diffusive models. J . Atmos. Sci. 38, I91 1-1927.
    • Jaeger. L. 1976. Monatskarten des niederschlags fur die ganze erde. Berichte des Deutsch Wetterdienstes, Nr. 139, Offenbach a. M.
    • Kurihara, Y. 1973. Experiments on the seasonal variation of the general circulation in a statistical-dynamical model. J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 25-49.
    • Manabe. S. and Strickler, R. F. 1964. Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment. J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 361-385.
    • Manabe. S . and Wetherald, R. 1967. Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 241-259.
    • Milankovitch. M. 1941. Canon of insolation and the ice age problem. Royal Serbian Academy Publication 133. Belgrade, 633 pp., in Serb-Croation (Translation, Israel Program for Scientific Translation, 1969.482 pp.).
    • Mullen. A. B. 1979. A mechanistic model f o r midlatitude temperature structure. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambrdige, MA.
    • North, G . R. 1975. Analytical solution to a simple climate model with diffusive heat transport. J . Atmos. Sci.32, 1301-1307.
    • North, G. R.. Cahalan, R. F. and Coakley, J. A. 1981. Energy balance climate models. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 19.91-121.
    • North, G . R., Mengel, J. G . and Short, D. A. 1983. Simple energy balance model resolving the seasons and the continents: application to the astronomical theory of the ice ages. J . Geophys. Res. 88,6576-6586.
    • Oort, A. H. 1983. Global atmospheric circulation statistics, 1958-1973. Professional Paper 14, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC, 180 pp.
    • Pollard, D., Ingersoll, A. P. and Lockwood, J. G . 1980. Response of a zonal climate-ice sheet model to the orbital perturbations during the quaternary Ice ages. Tellus 32, 301-319.
    • Sellers, W. D. 1965. Physical Clirnatolog~U.niversity of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 242 pp.
    • Sellers, W. D. 1969. A global climatic model based on the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system. J. Appl. Meteorol. 8 , 392-400.
    • Simpson, G . 1938. Ice ages. Nature 141, 591-598.
    • Stone, H. M. and Manabe, S. 1968. Comparison among various numerical models designed for computing infrared cooling. Mon. Weather Rev. 96, 735-741.
    • Suarez, M. J. 1976. An evaluation of the astronomical theory of the ice ages. Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 108 pp.
    • Suarez, M.J. and Held, I. M. 1979. The sensitivity of an energy balance climate model to variations in the orbital parameters. J . Geophvs. Res. 84, 4825- 4836.
    • Weertman, J. 1976. Milankovitch solar radiation variations and Ice age ice sheet sizes. Nature 261, 17-20.
    • Wetherald, R. T. and Manabe, S. 1975. The effects of changing the solar constant on the climate of a general circulation model. J . Atmos. Sci. 32, 2044-2059.
    • Williams, J., Barry, R. G. and Washington, W. M. 1974. Simulation of the atmospheric circulation using the NCAR global circulation model with ice age boundary conditions. J. Appl. Meteorol. 13. 305-3 17.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • NSF | Graduate Student Research i...

Cite this article

Collected from