Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Keeling, Ralph F; Manning, Andrew C.; Paplawsky, William J.; Cox, Adam C. (2011)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
Measurements of changes in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio have typically relied on compressed air derived from high-pressure tanks as the reference material against which atmospheric changes are assessed. The validity of this procedure is examined here in the context of the history of 18 O2/N2 reference tanks compared over a 12-yr time-frame. By considering differences in tank sizes, material types, and by performing additional tests, the long-term stability of the delivered gas is evaluated with respect to surface reactions, leakage, regulator effects, and thermal diffusion and gravimetric fractionation. Results are also reported for the stability of CO2 in these tanks. The results emphasize the importance of orienting tanks horizontally within a thermally insulated enclosure to reduce thermal and gravimetric fractionation of both O2/N2 and CO2 concentrations, and they emphasize the importance of avoiding elastomeric O-rings at the head-valve base. With the procedures documented here, the long-term drift in O2/N2 appears to be zero to within approximately ±0.4 per meg yr-1, which projects to an uncertainty of ±0.16 Pg C yr-1 (1σ) in O2-based global carbon budgets.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00228.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Balkanski, Y., Monfray, P., Battle, M. and Heimann, M. 1999. Ocean primary production derived from satellite data: An evaluation with atmospheric oxygen measurements. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 13, 257- 271.
    • Battle, M., Bender, M. L., Tans, P. P., White, J. W. C., Ellis, J. T. and co-authors. 2000. Global carbon sinks and their variability inferred from atmospheric O2 and δ13C. Science 287, 2467-2470.
    • Bender, M. L., Tans, P. P., Ellis, J. T., Orchardo, J. and Habfast, K. 1994. A high-precision isotope ratio mass-spectrometry method for measuring the O2/N2 ratio of air. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 4751-4758.
    • Bender, M. L., Ho, D. T., Hendricks, M. B., Mika, R., Battle, M. O. and co-authors. 2005. Atmospheric O2/N2 changes, 1993-2002: Implications for the partitioning of fossil fuel CO2 sequestration. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 19(GB4017),4011-4015.
    • Broecker, W. S. 1970. Mans oxygen reserves. Science 168, 1537-1538.
    • Keeling, R. F. 1988a. Measuring correlations between atmospheric oxygen and carbon-dioxide mole fractions - a preliminary-study in urban air. J. Atmos. Chem. 7, 153-176.
    • Keeling, R. F. 1988b. Development of an Interferometric Oxygen Analyzer for Precise Measurement of the Atmospheric O2 Mole Fraction. Harvard University, 178.
    • Keeling, R. F. and Shertz, S. R. 1992. Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global cabon-cycle. Nature 358, 723-727.
    • Keeling, R. F., Najjar, R. P., Bender, M. L. and Tans, P. P. 1993. What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carboncycle. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 7, 37-67.
    • Keeling, R. F., Piper, S. C. and Heimann, M. 1996. Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature 381, 218-221.
    • Keeling, R. F., Manning, A. C., McEvoy, E. M. and Shertz, S. R. 1998a. Methods for measuring changes in atmospheric O2 concentration and their application in southern hemisphere air. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 103, 3381-3397.
    • Keeling, R. F., Stephens, B. B., Najjar, R. G., Doney, S. C., Archer, D. and co-authors.1998b. Seasonal variations in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio in relation to the kinetics of air-sea gas exchange. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 12, 141-163.
    • Keeling, R. F., Blaine, T., Paplawsky, B., Katz, L., Atwood, C. and coauthors. 2004. Measurement of changes in atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio using a rapid-switching, single-capillary mass spectrometer system. Tellus 56B, 322-338.
    • Langenfelds, R. L. 2002. Studies of the carbon cycle using atmospheric oxygen and associated tracers. University of Tasmania, 338.
    • Machta, L. and Hughes, E. 1970. Atmospheric Oxygen in 1967 to 1970. Science 168, 1582-1584.
    • Manning, A. C., Keeling, R. F. and Severinghaus, J. P. 1999. Precise atmospheric oxygen measurements with a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 13, 1107-1115.
    • Manning, A. C. and Keeling, R. F. 2006. Global oceanic and land biotic carbon sinks from the Scripps atmospheric oxygen flask sampling network. Tellus 58B, 95-116.
    • Najjar, R. G. and Keeling, R. F. 2000. Mean annual cycle of the airsea oxygen flux: A global view. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 14, 573- 584.
    • Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M. and Poling, B. E. 1987. The Properties of Gases and Liquids 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
    • Stephens, B. B., Keeling, R. F., Heimann, M., Six, K. D., Murnane, R. and co-authors. 1998. Testing global ocean carbon cycle models using measurements of atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentration. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle 12, 213-230.
    • Stephens, B. B., Keeling, R. F. and Paplawsky, W. 2003. Shipboard measurements of atmospheric oxygen using a vacuum-ultraviolet absorption technique. Tellus 55B, 857-878.
    • Stephens, B. B., Bakwin, P., Tans, P. P., Teclaw, R. and Baumann, D. 2006. Application of a differential fuel-cell analyzer for measuring atmospheric oxygen variations. Journal of atmospheric and oceanic technology in press.
    • Sturm, P., Leuenberger, M., Sirignano, C., Neubert, R. E. M., Meijer, H. A. J. and co-authors. 2004. Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 109, D04309.
    • Tohjima, Y. 2000. Method for measuring changes in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 105, 14575-14584.
    • Tohjima, Y., Machida, T., Watai, T., Akama, I., Amari, T. and co-authors. 2005. Preparation of gravimetric standards for measurements of atmospheric oxygen and reevaluation of atmospheric oxygen concentration. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 110, D11302.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • NSF | Measurements of Variations ...
  • NSF | Atmospheric Oxygen Variabil...
  • NSF | Changes in Atmospheric Oxyg...
  • NSF | A Survey of the Variability...

Cite this article

Collected from