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Taguchi, Shoichi; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Sawa, Yousuke (2002)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
High concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were observed in October 1997 at the upper troposphere of the western tropical Pacific. Transport from the potential sources of CO due to biomass burnings in the tropics was investigated by using a global chemical transport model (CTM) driven by assimilated meteorological data provided from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A CTM evaluation simulation using water vapor showed that the amount of vertical transport of moisture by large-scale flow was consistent with the precipitation predicted at the convective zone. A series of CTM simulations using 10-day emission periods of an artificial material with lifetime of 60 days indicated that vertical lifting of surface air at the Indonesian archipelago occurred in the concentrated convections west of Sumatra Island. No evidence was found that CO from the Amazon region or Africa significantly contributed to high concentrations in the western tropical Pacific. Transport formed a large-scale anvil below the tropopause by rapid vertical transport and by divergence flow. The average time required for the transport from Kalimantan and Sumatra Island to the point of high CO concentration was about 15 days. High concentrations at an altitude of 10 km in the Southern Hemisphere were transported by large-scale subsidence from the upper tropospheric maximum, which was presumably produced from the sources at Kalimantan and Sumatra Island. Estimated emissions of CO in September and October from Kalimantan and Sumatra were substantially larger than the previous estimates. Omission of chemical reaction was a possible problem for the overestimate, but not significant. The possible problems in the transport were incorrect CTM transport due to insufficient horizontal (2.5×2.5°) and vertical resolution of the CTM, and to inaccuracy in the wind fields at the upper part of the troposphere and a divergent flow pattern in the upper part of the troposphere.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.00271.x
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