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Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Macias, Aurélie; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Félicien, Tshimungu Kandolo; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K. Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe (2016)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Global Health Action
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: female genital mutilation; systematic review; Africa; medical and psychological consequences; prevalence and ethics; socioeconomic consequences, Public Health, Global Health, Gender Studies, Medicine and Society
Background: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported.Objective: This review aims to characterize over a 40-year period the scientific output on the consequences of FGM in African countries, the most affected region known for the high prevalence of FGM, and review data on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice.Design: A systematic review of literature was done, looking at the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BDSP, Web of Science, PsycINFO, FRANCIS, Sociological Abstracts, WHOLIS, RERO, and SAPHIR. The analysis was limited to articles concerning the African continent, published in English and French, from January 1, 1972, to December 31, 2011.Results: One hundred ninety-eight articles were reviewed. More than half of the articles were published during the last decade of the study period. The majority of papers were published in biomedical journals (64.1%). Most studies looked at Africa as a region (33.3%). Nigeria was the single country most investigated (19.2%), followed by Egypt (10.6%). Most first authors were affiliated to non-African countries (60.6%): among them 21.2% were US-based, 4% were from African institutions, and 16.2% from Nigeria.The medical and psychological consequences (51.5%) and the prevalence and ethics of the practice (34.4%) were the most frequently investigated topics. The socioeconomic consequences were addressed in a minority of the papers (14.1%): they were classified into direct economic consequences (2.5%), school attendance (1%), marriageability (2%), sexual and marital consequences (3.5%), fertility (2.5%), domestic violence (1%), and discrimination (1.5%).Conclusions: The publication of articles on the consequences of FGM is increasing, but there is little research on the socioeconomic consequences of the practice. More scientific data focusing on this dimension is necessary to strengthen prevention, advocacy, and intervention campaigns.Keywords: female genital mutilation; systematic review; Africa; medical and psychological consequences; prevalence and ethics; socioeconomic consequences(Published: 4 October 2016)Citation: Glob Health Action 2016, 9: 31489 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v9.31489
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    • 4. BDSP (''Mutilation sexuelle'' OU Excision OU Infibulation OU ''Ablation clitoris'' OU ''Circoncision fe´ minine'' OU Clitorectomie OU Excision OU ''Mutilation ge´ nitale fe´ minine'' OU MGF) ET (Afrique OU africain OU africaine OU africains OU africaines OU Angola OU Be´ nin OU Botswana OU Burkina Faso OU Burundi OU Cameroun OU Canaries OU Cap Vert OU Centrafrique OU Comores OU Congo OU ''C oˆte d'Ivoire'' OU Djibouti OU Egypte OU Erythr e´e OU Ethiopie OU Gabon OU Gambie OU Ghana OU Guine´ e OU Ile Maurice OU Kenya OU Lesotho OU Libe´ ria OU Madagascar OU Maghreb OU Malawi OU Mali OU Maurice OU Mozambique OU Namibie OU Niger OU Nigeria OU ''Oce´ an Indien'' OU Ouganda OU Rwanda OU ''Sahara espagnol'' OU Se´ ne´ gal OU Seychelles OU Sierra Leone OU Somalie OU Soudan OU Swaziland OU Tanzanie OU Tchad OU Togo OU Zaı¨re OU Zambie OU Zimbabwe)
    • 5. Web of Science, (''Female Circumcisions'' OR ''Female Circumcision'' OR ''Infibulation'' OR ''Infibulations'' OR ''Clitoridectomy'' PsycINFO, FRANCIS, OR ''Clitoridectomies'' OR ''Clitorectomy'' OR ''Clitorectomies'' OR ''Female Genital Cutting'' OR ''Female Sociological abstracts Genital Mutilation'' OR ''Female Genital Mutilations'') AND (Africa* OR Algeria OR Egypt OR Libya OR Morocco OR Tunisia OR Cameroon OR ''Central African Republic'' OR Chad OR Congo OR ''Democratic Republic of the Congo'' OR ''Equatorial Guinea'' OR Gabon OR Burundi OR Djibouti OR Eritrea OR Ethiopia OR Kenya OR Rwanda OR Somalia OR Sudan OR Tanzania OR Uganda OR Angola OR Botswana OR Lesotho OR Malawi OR Mozambique OR Namibia OR ''South Africa'' OR Swaziland OR Zambia OR Zimbabwe OR Benin OR ''Burkina Faso'' OR ''Cape Verde'' OR ''Cote d'Ivoire'' OR Gambia OR Ghana OR Guinea OR ''Guinea-Bissau'' OR Liberia OR Mali OR Mauritania OR Niger OR Nigeria OR Senegal OR ''Sierra Leone'' OR Togo) Circumcision, female, Africa, African, Mutilation sexuelle, Afrique
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