Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Pälli, Anja; Moore, John C.; Jania, Jacek; Kolondra, Leszek; Glowacki, Piotr (2003)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Polar Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
To improve our understanding of Svalbard-type polythermal glacier drainage, hydraulic geometry models of the subglacial hydrology of two contrasting glaciers in Svalbard have been constructed. The models are tested against a uniquely long and rich set of field observations spanning 45 years. Digital elevation models (DEMs) were constructed from bedrock data measured with ground penetrating radar and surface data of two medium-sized polythermal glaciers, Hansbreen and Werenskioldbreen, in south-west Spitsbergen. Hansbreen has a low angle bed with over-deepenings and a calving front, while Werenskioldbreen has steeper bed and terminates on land. Together they are representative of many Svalbard glaciers. The DEMs were used to derive maps of hydraulic potential and subglacial drainage networks. Validation of the models was done using field observations including location mapping and speleological exploration of active moulins, positions of main river outflows, dyetracing and water chemistry studies, and observations of water pressure inside moulins. Results suggest that the water pressure is generally close to ice overburden pressure but varies greatly depending on local conditions such as bed location, the thickness of cold ice layer, the thickness of the glacier and seasonal changes in meltwater input.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Baranowski, S. 1977: The subpolar glaciers of Spitsbergen seen against the climate of this region. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis. Results of investigations of the Polish Scientific Spitsbergen Expeditions 1970-1974. Acta Univ. Wratislav. 410.
    • Bingham, R., Nienow, P., Sharp, M., Boon, S. & Heppenstall, K. 2001: Dye-tracer studies of the hydrology of a HighArctic polythermal valley glacier: implications for glacier motion. Paper presented at the 58th Eastern Snow Conference. Ottawa, Canada, 15-17 May.
    • Blatter, H. & Hutter, K. 1991: Polythermal conditions in Arctic glaciers. J. Glaciol. 37, 261-269.
    • Birkenmajer, K. 1990: Hornsund, Spitsbergen, Geology 1: 75 000 (thematic map). Geological map of the Hornsund area. Katowice, Poland: University of Silesia.
    • Björnsson, H. 1982: Drainage basins on Vatnajökull mapped by radio echo sounding. Nord. Hydrol. 13, 213-232.
    • Björnsson, H. 1988: Hydrological characteristics of the drainage system beneath a surging glacier. Nature 395, 771-774.
    • Bukowska-Jania, E. 2002: Rola systemu lodowcowego w obiegu weglanu wapnia w srodowisku przyrodniczym (na przykBadzie Svalbardu i mlodoglacjalnych obszarow Polski polnocno-zachodniej). (The role of glacier systems in the migration of calcium carbonate in the natural environment [with particular reference to Svalbard and the late-glacial areas in north-west Poland].) Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Slaskiego 2103. (In Polish, with English summary.) Katowice, Poland: University of Silesia.
    • Copland, L. & Sharp, M. 2001: Mapping thermal and hydrological conditions beneath a polythermal glacier with radio-echo sounding. J. Glaciol. 47, 232-242.
    • Flowers, G. & Clarke, G. K. C. 1999: Surface and bed topography of Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada: digital elevation models and derived hydraulic geometry. J. Glaciol.45, 165-174.
    • Fountain, A. G. & Vaughn, B. H. 1995: Changing drainage patterns within South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA, 1964-1992. Int. Assoc. Hydrol. Sci. Publ. 228, 379-386.
    • Glazovskiy, A. F., Kolondra, L., Moskalevskiy, M. Y. & Jania, J. 1992: Studies on the tidewater glacier Hansbreen on Spitsbergen. Polar Geogr. Geol. 16, 243-252.
    • Głowicki, B. 1982: Some hydrological phenomena observed in the outflow from the Werenskiold glacier basin. Spitsbergen Expeditions IV. Acta Univ. Wratislav. 525, 49-56.
    • Goodwin, I. D. 1988: The nature and origin of a jökulhlaup near Casey Station, Antarctica. J. Glaciol. 34, 95-101.
    • Hagen, J.-O., Etzelmüller, B. & Nuttal, A.-M. 2000: Runoff and drainage pattern derived from digital elevation models, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard. Ann. Glaciol. 31, 147-152.
    • Hock, R. & Hooke, R. L. 1993: Evolution of the internal drainage system in the lower part of Storglaciären, Sweden. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 105, 537-546.
    • Hodson, A. J. & Ferguson, R. I. 1999: Fluvial suspended sediment transport from cold and warm based glaciers in Svalbard. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 24, 957-974.
    • Hodson, A. J., Tranter, M., Dowdeswell, J. A., Gurnell, A. M. & Hagen, J.-O. 1998: Glacier thermal regime and suspended sediment yield: a comparison of two high Arctic glaciers. Ann. Glaciol. 24, 32-37.
    • Holmlund, P. 1988: Internal geometry and evolution of moulins, Storglaciären, Sweden. J. Glaciol. 34, 221-233.
    • Hooke, R. L., Wold, B. & Hagen, J.-O. 1984: Subglacial hydrology and sediment transport at Bondhusbreen, southwest Norway. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 388-397.
    • Jania, J. 1988: Dynamiczne procesy glacialne na poludniowym Spitsbergen w świetle badań fotointerpretacyjnych i fotogrametrycznych. (Dynamic glacial processes in south Spitsbergen in the light of photointerpretation and photogrammetric research.) Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego 955. Katowice, Poland: University of Silesia.
    • Jania, J., Mochnacki, D. & Gadek, B. 1996: The thermal structure of Hansbreen, a tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Polar Res. 15, 53-66.
    • Jansson, P. 1996: Dynamics and hydrology of a small polythermal valley glacier. Geogr. Ann. 78A, 171-180.
    • Kotlyakov, V. M. 1992: Rezhim I evolyutsiya polyarnykh lednikovykh pokrovov. (The regime and evolution of polar ice sheets.) St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat.
    • Krawczyk, W. E., Pulina, M. & Řehák, J. 1997: Similarity between the hydrologic system of the Werenskiold glacier (SW Spitsbergen) and karst. In P.-Y. Jeanin (ed.): Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Speleology, 1997, Switzerland, Vol. 1. Pp. 493-496. Basel: Swiss Speleological Society.
    • Leszkiewicz, J., Piasecki, J. & Pulina, M. 1999: Hydrology of the Werenskiold glacier catchment area (south Spitsbergen) in summer 1998. In J. Repelewska-Pekalowa (ed.): XXVI Polar Symposium, Lublin. Polish polar studies. Pp. 153- 160. Lublin: Maria Curie-Sklodowska.
    • Macheret, Y. Y. & Glazovsky, A. F. 2000: Estimation of absolute water content in Spitsbergen glaciers from radar sounding data. Polar Res. 19, 205-216.
    • Macheret, Y. Y., Moskalevsky, M. Y. & Vasilenko, E. V. 1993: Velocity of radio waves in glaciers as an indicator of their hydrothermal state, structure and regime. J. Glaciol. 39, 373-384.
    • Moore, J., Pälli, A., Ludwig, F., Blatter, H., Jania, J., Gadek, B., Głowacki, P., Mochnacki, D. & Isaksson, E. 1999: Highresolution hydrothermal structure of Hansbreen, Spitsbergen, mapped by ground-penetrating radar. J. Glaciol. 45, 524-532.
    • O'Callaghan, J. F. & Mark, D. M. 1984: The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data. Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 28, 328-344.
    • Pälli, A. 1998: Analysis and interpretation of ground penetrating radar data of polythermal glacier, Hansbreen, Svalbard. MSc thesis, University of Oulu, Finland.
    • Paterson, W. S. B. 1994: The physics of glaciers. Third edition. Oxford: Elsevier.
    • Pulina, M., Kolondra, L. & Řehák, J. 1999: Charting of cryokarst forms on Werenskiold glacier (SW Spitsbergen). In J. Repelewska-Pekalowa (ed.): XXVI Polar Symposium, Lublin. Polish polar studies. Pp. 235-241. Lublin: Maria Curie-Sklodowska.
    • Pulina, M. & Řehák, J. 1991: Glacier caves in Spitsbergen. In A. Eraso (ed.): 1st International Symposium of Glacier Caves and Karst in Polar Regions. Proceedings. Pp. 93- 117. Madrid: Geological Survey of Spain.
    • Řehák, J., Ouhrabka, V. & Braun, J. 1990: New information about the interior drainage of subpolar glaciers and the structure of medial moraines of the southwest Spitsbergen. Stud. Carsologica 1, 15-56.
    • Rippin, D., Willis, I., Arnold, N., Hodson, A., Moore, J., Kohler, J. & Björnsson, H. 2003: Changes in geometry and subglacial drainage of Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, determined from digital elevation models. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 28, 273-298.
    • Schneider, T. 1999: Water movement in the firn of a polythermal glacier. J. Glaciol. 45, 286-294.
    • Schröder, J. 1995: Les moulins du glacier Hans de 1988 á 1992. (Moulins of Hansbreen from 1988 to 1992.) In M. Grieselin (ed.): Actes du 3e Symposium International, Cavités Glaciaires et Cryokarst en Régions Polaires et de Haute Montagne, 1-6 novembre 1994, Chamonix, France. Annales Littéraires de l'Université de Besançon 561, Série Géographie 34. Pp. 31-39. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
    • Sharp, M., Richards, K., Willis, I., Arnold, N., Nienow, P., Lawson, W. & Tison, J.-L. 1993: Geometry, bed topography and drainage system structure of the Haut Glacier D' Arolla, Switzerland. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 18, 557-571.
    • Shreve, R. L. 1972: Movement of water in glaciers. J. Glaciol. 11, 205-214.
    • Skidmore, M. L. & Sharp, M. 1999: Drainage system behaviour of a High-Arctic polythermal glacier. Ann. Glaciol. 28, 209-215.
    • Tarboton, D. G. 1997: A new method for the determination of flow directions and contributing areas in grid digital elevation models. Water Resour. Res. 33, 309-319.
    • Tarboton, D. G. & Ames, D. P. 2001: Advances in the mapping of flow networks from digital elevation data. Paper presented at World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, Orlando, Florida, May 20-24.
    • Van de Wal, R. S. W. Mulvaney, R., Isaksson, E., Moore, J. C., Pinglot, J.-F., Pohjola, V. & Thomassen, M. P. A. 2002: Reconstruction of the historical temperature trend from measurements in a medium-length bore hole on the Lonomosovfonna Plateau, Svalbard. Ann. Glaciol. 35, 371- 378.
    • Vieli, A. 2001: On the dynamics of tidewater glaciers. PhD thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    • Wadham J. L., Hodson, A. J. Tranter, M. & Dowdeswell, J. A. 1998: The hydrochemistry of meltwaters draining a polythermal-based High Arctic glacier, south Svalbard: I. The ablation season. Hydrol. Process. 12, 1825-1849.
    • Wadham, J. L., Hodgkins, R., Cooper, R. J., & Tranter, M. 2001: Evidence for seasonal subglacial outburst events at a polythermal glacier, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard. Hydrol. Process. 15, 2259-2280.
    • Wadham, J. L., Tranter, M. & Dowdeswell, J. A. 2000: Hydrochemistry of meltwaters draining a polythermal-based, High-Arctic glacier, south Svalbard: II. Winter and early Spring. Hydrol. Process. 14, 1767-1786.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from