LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Pääkkönen, Tiina; Leppäluoto, Juhani (2002)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Low ambient temperature during winter seasons is typical for all circumpolar areas. This sets definite demands for every day life and work. Naked, man is quite helpless in polar winter, but he has been able to inhabit all corners of the ear th using technical developments in clothing and housing. Yet there are situations, especially in circumpolar areas, when bodily exposure to cold environment cannot be avoided. Homeothermic animals protect themselves from the cold by increasing heat production and decreasing heat losses. For practical reasons man has very few means of reducing heat loss by natural ways. Heat is produced by muscular work and by chemical reactions. Oxidative phosphorylation of dietary fuels such as carbohydrates and fats brings forward energy-rich phosphate compounds, at the same time liberating heat for bodily uses. Thyroid and adrenal hormones and the sympathetic nerve system maintain and regulate the oxidative phosphorylation that occurs mainly in the mitochondria of brown and white fat and skeletal muscle tissues. It is notewor thy that animals from which thyroid or adrenal glands are removed do not tolerate cold.(Int J Circumpolar Health 2002; 61(3):265-276)
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1 Reed HL. Circannual changes in thyroid hormone physiology:The role of cold environmental temperatures. Arct Med Res 1995; 54: suppl. 2: 9-15..
    • 2. Hershman JM, Read DG, Bailey AL, Norman VD, Gibson TB. Effect of cold exposure on serum thyrotropin. J Clin Endocr 1970; 30: 430-434.
    • 3. Leppäluoto J, Korhonen I, Huttunen P, Hassi J. Serum levels of thyroid and adrenal hormones, testosterone,TSH, LH, GH and prolactin in men after a 2-h stay in a cold room. Acta Physiol Scand 1988; 132: 543- 548.
    • 4. Hesslink RL Jr, D'Alesandro MM, Armstrong DW 3rd, Reed HL. Human cold air habituation is independent of thyroxine and thyrotropin. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72(6): 2134-2139.
    • 5. Savourey G, Caravel JP, Barnavol B, Bittel JH. Thyroid hormone changes in a cold air environment after local cold acclimation. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76(5): 1963-1967.
    • 6. Leppäluoto J, Sikkilä K, Hassi J. Seasonal variation of serum TSH and thyroid hormones in males living in subarctic environmental conditions. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998; 57 Suppl 1: 383-385.
    • 7. Reed HL, Burman KD, Shakir KM, O'Brian JT. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid axis after prolonged residence in Antarctica. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1986; 25(1): 55-65.
    • 8. Reed HL, Ferreiro JA, Mohamed Shakir KM, Burman KD, O'Brian JT.Pituitary and peripheral hormone responses to T3 administration duringAntarctic residence. Am J Physiol 1988; 254(6 Pt 1): E733-739.
    • 9. Palinkas LA, Reed HL, Reedy KR, Do NH, Case HS, Finney NS.Circannual pattern of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) function and mood during extended antarctic residence. Psychoneuroendocrin 2001; 26:421-431.
    • 10. Solter M, Misjak M. Pituitary-gonadal response to extreme cold exposure in healthy men. Horm Metab Res 1989; 21(6): 343-344.
    • 11. Reed HL, Reedy KR, Palinkas LA et al. Impairment in cognitive and exercise performance during prolonged antarctic residence: effect of thyroxine supplementation in the polar triiodothyronine syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86(1): 110-116.
    • 12. Wagner JA, Horvath SM, Kitagawa K, Bolduan NW. Comparisons of blood and urinary responses to cold exposures in young
    • 25. Kennaway DJ,Van Dorp CF. Free-running rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, electrolytes, and sleep in humans in Antarctica. Am J Physiol 1991; 260(6 Pt 2): R1137-1144.
    • 26. Budd GM,Warhaft N. Urinary excretion of adrenal steroids, catecholamines and electrolytes in man, before and after acclimatization to cold in Antarctica. J Physiol 1970; 210(4): 799-806.
    • 27. Radomski MW, Boutelier C. Hormone response of normal and intermittent coldpreadapted humans to continuous cold. J Appl Physiol 1982; 53(3): 610-616.
    • 28. TouitouY, Sulon J, Bogdan A, Reinberg A, Sodoyez JC, Demey-Ponsart E. Adrenocortical hormones, ageing and mental condition: seasonal and circadian rhythms of plasma 18- hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone, total and free cortisol and urinary corticosteroids. J Endocrinol 1983; 96(1): 53-64.
    • 29. Ohno H,Yahata T,Yamashita K, Kuroshima A. Effect of acute cold exposure on ACTH and zinc concentrations in human plasma. Jpn J Physiol 1987; 37(4): 749-755.
    • 30. Vigas M, Martino E, Bukovska M, Langer P. Effect of acute cold exposure and insulin hypoglycemia on plasma thyrotropin levels by IRMA in healthy young males. Endocrinol Exp 1988; 22(4): 229-234.
    • 31. Leppäluoto J, Lybeck H,Virkkunen P, Partanen J, Ranta T. Effects of immersion in cold water on the plasma ACTH, GH, LH and TSH concentrations in man. In: Harvald B, Hart-Hansen JP, eds. Circumpolar Health 81. Copenhagen: Stoutgaard, Jensen 1981; 601- 602.
    • 32. Smith DJ, Deuster PA, Ryan CJ, Doubt TJ. Prolonged whole body immersion in cold water: hormonal and metabolic changes. Undersea Biomed Res 1990; 17(2): 139-147.
    • 33. Hiramatsu K,Yamada T, Katakura M. Acute effects of cold on blood pressure, reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, catecholamines and adrenal steroids in man. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1984; 11(2): 171-179.
    • 34. Böning D, Mrugalla M, Maassen N, Busse M, Wagner TO. Exercise versus immersion: antagonistic effects on water and electrolyte metabolism during swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol 1988; 57(2): 248-253.
    • 35. Weiss M, Hack F, Stehle R, Pollert R, Weicker H. Effects of temperature and water immersion on plasma catecholamines and circulation. Int J Sports Med 1988; 9 Suppl 2: S113-117.
    • 36. O'Malley BP, Cook N, Richardson A, Barnett DB, Rosenthal FD. Circulating catecholamine, thyrotrophin, thyroid hormone and prolactin responses of normal subjects to acute cold Table I.The effects of cold exposure on human hormone secretion exposure. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1984; . 21(3): 285-291.
    • ______________________________________________________________ 37. Young AJ, Muza SR, Sawka MN, Gonzalez Hormone Short-time cold Cold RR, Pandolf KB. Human thermoregulatory exposure season responses to cold air are altered by repeated ______________________________________________________________ cold water immersion. J Appl Physiol 1986; Thyroid gland 60(5): 1542-1548. Serum T4 no change no change 38. Thomas JR, Ahlers ST, House JF et al. Free T4 no change decreases Adrenergic responses to cognitive activity in a Serum T3 no change decreases cold environment. J Appl Physiol 1990; Free T3 decreases 68(3): 962-966.
    • Adrenal cortex 39. LeBlanc J, Cote J, Jobin M, Labrie A. Plasma Cortisol increases increases catecholamines and cardiovascular responses Aldosterone increases increases to cold and mental activity. J Appl Physiol Adrenal medulla and nerve endings 1979; 47(6): 1207-1211. Epinephrine no change no change 40. Robertson D, Johnson GA, Robertson RM, Norepinephrine increases increases Nies AS, Shand DG, Oates JA. Comparative in hypertensive assessment of stimuli that release neuronal patients and adrenomedullary catecholamines in man.
    • Pituitary gland Circulation 1979; 59(4): 637-643. ACTH increases 41. Marino F, Sockler JM, Fry JM.Thermoregulaß-endorphin decreases tory, metabolic and sympathoadrenal FSH no change increases responses to repeated brief exposure to cold. LH no change increases Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1998; 58(7): 537- GH decreases no change 545. PRL decreases no change 42. Weeke J, Gundersen HJ.The effect of heating ADH decreases and central cooling on serum TSH, GH, and TSH no change increases norepinephrine in resting normal man. Acta Pineal gland Physiol Scand 1983; 117(1): 33-39. Melatonin 43. Johnson DG, Hayward JS, Jacobs TP, Collis Pancreas ML, Eckerson JD,Williams RH. Plasma Insulin no change increases norepinephrine responses of man in cold Glucagon increases water. J Appl Physiol 1977; 43(2): 216-220.
    • Vasoactive hormones 44. Okada Y, Miyai K, Iwatsubo H, KumaharaY. Angiotensin II no change Human growth hormone secretion in normal Endothelin-1 no change or increase adult subjects during and after exposure to ANP increase cold. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1970; 30(3): ________________________________________________________ 393-395. 45. Dulac S, Quirion A, DeCarufel D. Metabolic and hormonal responses to long-distance exposures should also be studied and their consequences swimming in cold water. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8(5): 352-356.
    • as to normal physical and mental performance clarified. 46. Dore S, Brisson GR, Fournier A, Montpetit This is clearly shown in the studies of Palinkas et al. and and humidity in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 52(2): 279-283.
    • 50. Brisson GR, Boisvert P, Peronnet F, Quirion A, Senecal L. Face cooling-induced reduction of plasma prolactin response to exercise as part of an integrated response to thermal stress. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 58(8): 816- 820.
    • 51. Gala RR,Van De Walle C, Hoffman WH et al. Lack of a circannual cycle of daytime serum prolactin in man and monkey. Acta Endocr 1977; 86(2): 257-262.
    • 52. Djursing H, Hagen C, Moller J, Christiansen C. Short- and long-term fluctuations in plasma prolactin concentration in normal subjects. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1981; 97(1): 1-6.
    • 53. Kauppila A, Pakarinen A, Kirkinen P, Mäkilä U.The effect of season on the circulating concentrations of anterior pituitary, ovarian and adrenal cortex hormones and hormone binding proteins in the subarctic area; evidence of increased activity of the pituitaryovarian axis in spring. Gynecol Endocrinol 1987; 1(2): 137-150.
    • 54. Smals AG, Kloppenborg PW, Benraad TJ. Circannual cycle in plasma testosterone levels in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976; 42(5): 979-982.
    • 55. Reiter RJ, Leppäluoto J. Melatonin as a hormone and antioxidant: implications for organisms at high latitudes. Int J Circumpolar Health 1997;56:4-11.
    • 56. Seitz HJ, Krone W,Wilke H,Tarnowski W. Rapid rise in plasma glucagon induced by acute cold exposure in man and rat. Pflugers Arch. 1981; 389(2): 115-120.
    • 57. Hassi J, Rintamäki H, Ruskoaho H, Leppäluoto J,Vuolteenaho O. Plasma levels of endothelin-1 and atrial natriuretic peptide in men during a 2-hour stay in a cold room. Acta Physiol Scand 1991; 142(4): 481-485.
    • 58. Fyhrquist F, Saijonmaa O, Metsärinne K, Tikkanen I, Rosenlof K,Tikkanen T. Raised plasma endothelin-I concentration following cold pressor test. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 169(1): 217-221.
    • 59. Ringqvist A, Leppert J, Myrdal U, Ahlner J, Ringqvist I,Wennmalm A. Plasma nitric oxide metabolite in women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and in healthy subjects. Clin Physiol 1997; 17(3): 269-277.
    • 60. Lootens WA. Comparisons of thermal predictive models for clothed human. ASHRAE transactions 1988;94:1321-1340.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from