Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Wiig, Øystein (2009)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Polar Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
During recent fieldwork in Svalbard, a well preserved subfossil left mandible of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) was discovered. A 14C age determination shows that it is older than 45 Ky (kilo-years), and an age determination with infrared-stimulated luminescence—together with the stratigraphic position of the bone—suggests that it is of Eemian–Early Weichselian age: 130–110 Ky old. This makes the find the oldest remains of a polar bear ever discovered. Morphological analyses of the mandible suggest that it comes from a fully grown male that was similar in size to extant male polar bears. The comparative study of other available subfossil polar bear remains did not reveal any significant change in size of polar bears during the Late Quaternary.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Aaris-Sørensen K. & Petersen K.S. 1984. A Late Weichselian find of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Denmark and reflections on the paleoenvironment. Boreas 13, 29-33.
    • Amstrup S.C. 2003. Polar bear, Ursus maritimus. In G.A. Feldhamer et al. (ed.): Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation. Pp. 587-610. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
    • Anderson T., Forman S.L., Ingólfsson Ó. & Manley W. 1999. Late Quaternary environmental history of Prins Karls Forland, western Svalbard. Boreas 28, 292-307.
    • Andreasen, C. 1997. The prehistory of the coastal areas of Amdrup Land and Holm Land adjacent to the northeast water polynya: an archaeological perspective. Journal of Marine Systems 10, 41-46.
    • Bennike O. 1991. Marine mammals in Peary Land, northern Greenland. Polar Record 27, 357-359.
    • Bennike O. 1997. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews 16, 899-909.
    • Bennike O. 2002. Late Quaternary history of Washington Land, North Greenland. Boreas 31, 260-272.
    • Berglund B.E., Håkansson S. & Lepiksaar J. 1992. Late Weichselian polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps) in southern Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Series Ca. 81, 31-42.
    • Bergsten H., Andersson T. & Ingólfsson Ó. 1998. Foraminiferal stratigraphy of raised marine deposits representing isotope stage 5, Prins Karls Forland, western Svalbard. Polar Research 17, 81-91.
    • Blystad P., Thomsen H., Simonsen A. & Lie R.W. 1983. Find of a nearly complete Late Weichselian polar bear skeleton, Ursus maritimus Phipps, at Finnøy, southwestern Norway: a preliminary report. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift 63, 193-197.
    • DeMaster D.P. & Stirling I. 1981. Ursus maritimus (polar bear). Mammalian Species 145, 1-7.
    • Erdbrink, D.P. 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the Old World. Devanter: Drukkerij Jan De Lange.
    • Gray A.P. 1972. Mammalian hybrids. A check-list with bibliography. 2nd edn. Slough: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
    • Grønnow B. & Jensen J.F. 2003. The northernmost ruins of the globe: Eigil Knuth's archaeological investigations in Peary Land and adjacent areas. Meddelelser om Grønland. Man & Society 29. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center.
    • Harington C.R. 2003. Annotated bibliography of Quaternary vertebrates of northern North America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    • Harington C.R. 2008. The evolution of Arctic marine mammals. Ecological Applications 18, S23-S40.
    • Heaton T.H., Talbot S.L. & Shields G.F. 1996. An ice age refugium for large mammals in the Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska. Quaternary Research 46, 189-192.
    • Hufthammer A.K. 2001. The Weichselian (c. 115,000-10,000 B.P.) vertebrate fauna of Norway. Bollettino della Societá Paleontologica Italiana 40, 201-208.
    • Kurtén B. 1964. The evolution of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps. Acta Zoologica Fennica 108, 1-30.
    • Kurtén B. 1968. Pleistocene mammals of Europe. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    • Laidre K.L., Stirling I., Lowry L.F., Wiig Ø., Heide-Jørgensen M.P. & Ferguson F.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecological Applications 18, S97-S125.
    • Larsen T. 1971. Sexual dimorphism in the molar rows of the polar bear. Journal of Wildlife Management 35, 374-377.
    • Lauritzen S.-E., Nese H., Lie R.W, Lauritzen Å & Løvlie R. 1996, Interstadial/interglacial fauna from Norcemgrotta, Kjøpsvik, north Norway. In S.E. Lauritzen (ed.): Climate change: the karst record. Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 2. Pp. 89-92. Charles Town, WV: Karst Waters Institute.
    • Mangerud J., Dokken T., Hebbeln D., Heggen B., Ingólfsson Ó., Landvik J., Mejdahl V., Svendsen J.I. & Vorren T. 1998. Fluctuations of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet the last 150,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, 11-42.
    • National Geographic News 2006. Photo in the news. Polar bear-grizzly hybrid discovered. Accessed on the internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/ bear-hybrid-photo.html on 6 March 2008.
    • Nordmann V. & Degerbøl M. 1930. En fossil kaebe av isbjørn (Ursus maritimus L.) fra Danmark. (A fossil polar bear jaw [Ursus maritimus L.] from Denmark.) Vitenskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 88, 273-286.
    • Nowak R. M. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. 6th edn. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
    • Rasmussen K.L. 1996. Carbon-14 datings from northern East Greenland. In B. Grønnow & J. Pind (eds.): The paleo-eskimo cultures of Greenland. Pp. 188-189. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center.
    • Stubbe M. 1993. Gattung Ursus Linnaeus, 1758. (The genus Ursus Linnaeus, 1758.) In M. Stubbe & F. Krapp (eds.): Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 5. Raubsäuger-Carnivora (Fissipedia). Teil I. Canidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae 1. (Handbook of European mammals. Volume 5. Carnivores-Carnivora [Fissipedia]. Part I. Canidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae 1.) Pp. 252-253. Wiesbaden: AULA Verlag.
    • Talbot S.L. & Shields G.F. 1996. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5, 477-494.
    • Thenius E. 1953. Concerning the analysis of the teeth of polar bears. Mammalogical Bulletin 1, 14-20.
    • Valen V., Mangerud J., Larsen E. & Hufthammer A.K. 1996. Sedimentology and stratigraphy in the cave Hamnsundhelleren, western Norway. Journal of Quaternary Science 11, 185-201.
    • Vershchagin N.K. 1969. The origin and evolution of the polar bear. In A.G. Bannikov et al. (eds.): The polar bear and its conservation in the Soviet Arctic. Pp. 25-51. Leningrad: Gidrometereologizdat. (Translated by Department of the Secretary of State Translation Bureau, Canada, No. 5776, 1970.)
    • von den Driesch A. 1976. A guide to the measurements of animal bones from archaeological sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin 1. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum.
    • Wayne R.K., van Valkenburgh B. & O'Brien S.J. 1991. Molecular distance and divergence time in carnivores and primates. Molecular Biology Evolution 8, 297-319.
    • Wozencraft W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In D.E. Wilson & D.A. Reader (eds.): Mammal species of the world. Pp. 352-628. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
    • Yu L., Li Y.-W., Ryder O.A. & Zhang Y. 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7, 198-209.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from