Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Freeman, James; Scott-Parker, Bridie; Wong, Ides; Haworth, Narelle (2012)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Society, Health & Vulnerability
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: human activities
Scientific efforts to understand and reduce the occurrence of road crashes continue to expand, particularly in the areas of vulnerable road user groups. Three groups that are receiving increasing attention within the literature are younger drivers, motorcyclists and older drivers. These three groups are at an elevated risk of being in a crash or seriously injured, and research continues to focus on the origins of this risk as well as the development of appropriate countermeasures to improve driving outcomes for these cohorts. However, it currently remains unclear what factors produce the largest contribution to crash risk or what countermeasures are likely to produce the greatest long term positive effects on road safety. This paper reviews research that has focused on the personal and environmental factors that increase crash risk for these groups as well as considers direction for future research in the respective areas. A major theme to emerge from this review is that while there is a plethora of individual and situational factors that influence the likelihood of crashes, these factors often combine in an additive manner to exacerbate the risk of both injury and fatality. Additionally, there are a number of risk factors that are pertinent for all three road user groups, particularly age and the level of driving experience. As a result, targeted interventions that address these factors are likely to maximise the flow-on benefits to a wider range of road users. Finally, there is a need for further research that aims to bridge the research-to-practice gap, in order to develop appropriate pathways to ensure that evidenced-based research is directly transferred to effective policies that improve safety outcomes.Keywords: Younger drivers; motorcyclists; older drivers(Published: 30 March 2012)Citation: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion. DOI: 10.3402/vgi.v3i0.14889
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • AIHW. (2001). Australian health trends. AIHW Cat No. PHE24. AIHW: Canberra, Australia.
    • Anstey, K.J., Wood, J., Lord, S., & Walker, J.G. (2005). Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 45 65.
    • Asbridge, M., Poulin, C., & Donato, A. (2005). Motor vehicle collision risk and driving under the influence of cannabis: Evidence from adolescents in Atlantic Canada. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 1025 1034.
    • ATSB (2004). Road deaths, Australia. 2004 Statistical summary. Canberra: Australian Transport Safety Bureau.
    • Attebo, K., Mitchell, P., & Smith, W. (1996). Visual acuity and the causes of visual loss in Australia. The blue mountains eye study. Opthalamology, 103, 357 364.
    • Ball, K., Owsley, C., Slocan, M.E., Roenker, D.L., & Bruni, J.R. (1993). Visual attention problems as a predictor of motor vehicle crashes in older drivers. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 34, 3110 3123.
    • Bedard, M., Guyatt, G.H., Stones, M.J., & Hirdes, J.P. (2002). The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34, 717 727.
    • BeĀ“dard, M., Leonard, E., McAuliffe, J., Weaver, B., Gibbons, C., & Dubois, S. (2006). Visual attention and older drivers: the contribution of inhibition of return to safe driving. Experimental Aging Research, 32, 119 35.
    • Begg, D.J., & Langley, J.D. (2000). Seat belt use and related behaviours among young adults. Journal of Safety Research, 31, 211 220.
    • Braitman, K.A., Kirley, B.B., McCartt, A.T., & Chaudhary, N.K. (2008). Crashes of novice teenage drivers: Characteristics and contributing factors. Journal of Safety Research, 39, 47 54.
    • Bryan, J., & Luszcz, M.A. (2000). Measurement of executive function: Consideration for detecting adult age differences. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22, 40 55.
    • Cerrelli, E.C. (1995). Crash data and rates for age-sex groups of drivers. Washington, DC: National Center for Statistics and Analyses, National Highway Administration.
    • Chang, H., & Yeh, T. (2007). Motorcyclist accident involvement by age, gender, and risky behaviours in Taipei, Taiwan. Transportation Research Part F, 10, 109 122.
    • Clarke, D.D., Ward, P., Bartle, C., & Truman, W. (2006). Young driver accidents in the UK: The influence of age, experience, and time of day. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 38, 871 878.
    • Clay, O.J., Wadley, V.G., Edwards, J., Roth, D.L., Roenker, D., & Ball, K.K.. (2005). Culminative meta-analysis of the relationship between useful field of view and driving performance in older adults: Current and future implications. Optometry and Visual Science, 82, 724 731.
    • Daniello, A., & Gabler, H. (2011). Fatality risk in motorcycle collisions with roadside objects in the United States. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1167 1170.
    • Dejeammes, M., & Ramet, M. (1996). Aging process and safety enhancement of car occupants. In Proceedings of the 15th international technical conference on the enhanced safety of vehicles: Vol. 2. (pp. 1189 1196). Melbourne.
    • Department of Infrastructure and Transport. (2010). Road Deaths: Australia 2010 Statistical Summary. Canberra: Australian Government.
    • De Raedt, R., & Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I. (2000). Can strategic and tactical compensation reduce crash risk in older drivers. Age and Ageing, 29, 517 521. 107.
    • DITRDLG. (2008). Road deaths Australia. 2007 Statistical Summary. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government.
    • DTMR. (2011). 2010 Year in review. Road crash report. Road fatalities and hospitalised crashes. Brisbane: DTMR.
    • Elliott, B. (1992). Achieving high levels of compliance with road safety laws: A review of road user behaviour modification. Brisbane: Queensland Parliamentary Travelsafe Committee.
    • Evans, L. (1991). Traffic safety and the driver. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    • Ferguson, S.A. (2003). Other high-risk factors for young drivers*How graduated licensing does, doesn't, or could address them. Journal of Safety Research, 34, 71 77.
    • Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., & Boden, J.M. (2008). Is driving under the influence of cannabis becoming a greater risk to driver safety than drink driving? Findings from a longitudinal study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 1345 1350.
    • Ferrante, A.M., Rosman, D.L., & Marom, Y. (2001). Novice drink drivers, recidivism and crash involvement. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33, 221 227.
    • Freeman, E.E., Gange, S.J., Munoz, B., & West, S.K. (2006). Driving status and risk of entry into long-term care in older adults. American Journal of Public health, 96, 1254 1259.
    • Furler, M. (2007, November 30). Random roadside drug tests to start. The Daily. Retrieved from http://www.thedaily. com.au/2007/nov30/random-roadsidedrug-tests-start/.
    • Gabler, H.C. (2007). The risk of fatality in motorcycle crashes with roadside barriers. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Lyons, France.
    • Government of Victoria. (2009). Victoria's Road Safety and Transport Strategic Action Plan for Powered Two Wheelers 2009 2013 [Online]. Retrieved from http//www.roads. vic.gov.au.
    • Gregersen, N.P., Berg, H.-Y., Engstrom, I., Nolen, S., Nyberg, A., & Rimmo, P.-A. (2000). Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden*An evaluation of safety effects. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 25 35.
    • Guerrier, J.H., Manivannan, P., & Nair, S. (1999). The role of working memory, field dependence, visual search, and reaction time in the left time performance of older female drivers. Applied Ergonomics, 30, 109 119.
    • Gugerty, L., Rakauskas, M., & Brooks, J. (2004). Effects of remote and in-person verbal interactions on verbalisation rates and attention to dynamic spatial scenes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36, 1029 1043.
    • Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Schneck, M., & Brabyn, J. (1999). Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity. Optometry and Vision Science, 76, 141 158.
    • Hakamies-Blomqvist, L., & Peters, B. (2000). Recent European research on older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 601 607.
    • Harrison, W.A. (2004). Investigation of the driving experience of a sample of Victorian learner drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36, 885 891.
    • Hartos, J.L., Simons-Morton, B.G., Beck, K.H., & Leaf, W.A. (2005). Parentimposed limits on high-risk adolescent driving: Are they stricter with graduated driver licensing? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 557 562.
    • Haworth, N. (1999, June). Road factors in motorcycle crashes. Presentation to the Victorian Motorcycle Advisory Council Workshop on Motorcycling and the Road Environment, Kew.
    • Haworth, N.L. (2012). Powered two wheelers in a changing world: Challenges and opportunities. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44(1), 12 18.
    • Haworth, N., & Mulvihill, C. (2003, September). Retiring from riding*or not? Paper presented at the Road Safety Research, Education and Policing Conference, Sydney.
    • Haworth, N., Mulvihill, C., & Clark, B. (2006). Motorbike safety in Queensland technical paper. Victoria: Monash University Accident Research Centre.
    • Haworth, N., Smith, R., Brumen, I., & Pronk, N. (1997). Case control study of motorcycle crashes (CR174). Canberra: Federal Office of Road Safety.
    • Heck, K.E., & Carlos, R.M. (2008). Passenger distractions among adolescent drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 39, 437 443.
    • Hickson, L., Wood, J., Chapparro, A., Lacherez, P., & Marszalek, R. (2010). Hearing impairment affects older people's ability to drive in the presence of distracters. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58, 1097 1103.
    • Hoffman, L., McDowd, J.M., Atchley, P., & Dubinsky, R.A. (2005). The role of visual attention in predicting driving impairment in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 20, 610 622.
    • Holland, C.A. (2002). Older drivers: A literature review. Road Safety Research Rep. No. 25. London: Department for Transport.
    • Klein, D., Kelin, R., Wang, Q., Klein, B.E., Moss, S.E., & Meuer, S.M. (1995). The relationship of age-related maclopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity. Investigative Opthamology and Vision Science, 36, 192 191.
    • Lam, L.T., Norton, R., Woodward, M., Connor, J., & Ameratunga, S. (2003). Passenger carriage and car crash injury: A comparison between younger and older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 861 867.
    • Langford, J, & Koppel, S. (2006). The case for and against mandatory age-based assessment of older drivers. Transportation Research Part F, 9, 353 362.
    • Langford, J.W., Methorst, R., & HakamiesBlomqvist, L. (2006). Older drivers do not have a high crash risk a replication of low mileage bias. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 38, 574 578.
    • Lee, S.E., Simons-Morton, B.G., Klauer, S.E., Oiumet, M.C., & Dingus, T.A. (2011). Naturalistic assessment of novice teenage crash experience. Accident Analysis Prevention, 43, 1472 1479.
    • Leville, S.G., Buchner, D.M., Kospell, T.D., McCloskey, L.W., Wold, M.E., & Wagner, E. H. (1994). Psychoactive medications and injurious motor vehicle collisions involving older drivers. Epidemiology, 5, 591 598.
    • Lewis, I., Watson, B., & White, K.M. (2009). Internet versus paper-and-pencil survey methods in psychological experiments: Equivalence testing of participant responses to health-related messages. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61, 107 116.
    • Li, G.H., Braver, E.R., & Chen, L.H. (2003). Fragility versus crash involvement as determinants of high death rates per vehicle among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 227 235.
    • Lin, M.R., Change, S.H., Pai, L., & Keyl, P.M. (2003). A longitudinal study of risk factors for motorcycle crashes among junior college students in Taiwan. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 243 252.
    • Lyman, S., Ferguson, S.A., Braver, E.R., & Williams, A.F. (2002). Older driver involvements in police reported crashes and fatal crashes: Trends and projections. Injury Prevention, 8, 116 120.
    • Mackay, M. (1998). Occupant protection and vehicle design. Los Angeles, CA: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Course on the Biomechanics of Impact Trauma.
    • Margolis, K.L., Kerani, R.P., McGovern, P., Songer, T., & Cauley, J.A. (2002). Risk factors of motor vehicle crashes in older men. Journals of Gerontology Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57, M186 M191.
    • Marottoli, R.A., Richardson, E.D., Stowe, M.H., Miller, E.G., Brass, L.M., Cooney, L.M. Jr. et al. (1998). Development of a test battery to identify older drivers at risk for self-reported adverse driving events. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 46, 562 568.
    • McCartt, A.T., Shabanova, V.I., & Leaf, W.A. (2003). Driving experience, crashes and traffic citations of teenage beginning drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 311 320. doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(02) 00006-4
    • McCartt, A.T., & Northrup, V.S. (2004). Factors related to seat belt use among fatally injured teenage drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 29 38.
    • McGwin, G., & Brown, D. (1999). Characteristics of traffic crashes among young, middle*aged, and older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31, 181 198.
    • McGwin, G. Jr., Chapman, V., & Owsley, C. (2000). Visual risk factors for driving difficulty among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 735 744.
    • McGwin, G., Sims, R.V., Pulley, L., & Roseman, J. (2000). Relations among chronic medical conditions, medications and automobile crashes in the elderly: A population-based case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 424 431.
    • McKnight, A.J., & McKnight, A.S. (2003). Young novice drivers: Careless or clueless? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 921 925.
    • Masten, S.V., & Hagge, R.A. (2004). Evaluation of California's graduated driver licensing program. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 523 535.
    • Mesken, J., Hagenzieker, M.P., Rothengatter, T., & de Waard, D. (2007). Frequency, determinants, and consequences of different drivers' emotions: An on-the-road study using self-reports, (observed) behaviour, and physiology. Transportation Research Part F, 10, 458 475.
    • Meuleners, L.B., Harding, A., Lee, A.H., & Legge, M. (2006). Fragility and crash over-representation among older drivers in Western Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 38, 1006 1010.
    • Miller, T.R., Spicer, R.S., & Lestina, D.C. (1998). Who is driving when unrestrained children and teenagers get hurt? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 839 849.
    • Motorcycle Safety Foundation. (1999). Motorcycle safety. Irvine, California, US: Department of Transport.
    • Motorcycle Safety Foundation. (2005). Motorcycling excellence (2nd ed.). New Hampshire: Whitehorse Press.
    • Muilenberg, J.L., Johnson, W.D., Usdan, S.L., Annang, L., & Clayton, D.L. (2007). Prevalence of impaired driving behaviors in a diverse, rural, southern middle school. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 1080 1087.
    • Neyens, D.M., & Boyle, L.N. (2007). The influence of driver distraction on the severity of injuries sustained by teenage drivers and their passengers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 254 259. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.06.005
    • Owsley, C., Ball, K., McGwin, G., Sloane, M.E., Roenker, D.L., White, M.F., & Overley, E.T. (1998). Visual processing impairment and risk of motor vehicle crash among older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1083 1088.
    • Owsley, C., & McGwin, G. Jr. (1999). Vision impairment and driving. Survey of Ophthalmology, 43, 535 550.
    • Owsley, C., Stalvey, B., Wells, J., & Sloane, M. (1999). Older drivers and cataract: Driving habits and crash risk. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54A, M203 M211.
    • Padmanaban, J. (2001). Crash injury experience of elderly drivers. AAAM Symposium on Aging and Driving, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Southfield, Michigan, February 19 20.
    • Peck, R.C., Gebers, M.A., Voas, R.B., & Romano, E. (2008). The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of Safety Research, 39, 311 319.
    • Preusser, D.F., Williams, A.F., Ferguson, S.A., Ulmer, R.G., & Weinstein, H.B. (1998). Fatal crash risk for older drivers at intersections. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 151 159.
    • Queensland Transport. (2005). 2003 Road traffic crashes in Queensland: A report on the road toll. Brisbane: Queensland Transport.
    • Ray, W.A., Thepa, P.B., & Shorr, R.I. (1993). Medications and the older driver. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 9, 431 438.
    • Raz, N., Gunning-Dixon, F., Williamson, A., & Acker, J.D. (2002). Age-related differences in the course of cognitive skill acquisition: The role of regional cortical shrinkage and cognitive resources. Psychology and Aging, 17, 72 84.
    • Regan, M.A., & Mitsopoulos, E. (2001). Understanding passenger influences on driver behaviour: Implications for road safety and recommendations for countermeasure development (Monash University Accident Research Centre Report CR180). Canberra: AGPS.
    • Retchin, S., & Anapolle, J. (1993). An overview of the older driver. Clinical Geriatric Medicine, 9, 279 296.
    • Richardson, E.D., & Marottoli, R.A. (2003). Visual attention and driving behaviors among community-living older persons. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 58, 18 22.
    • Roenker, D.L., Cissell, G.M., Ball, K., Wadley, V.G., & Edwards, J.D. (2003). Speedof-processing and driving simulated training result in improved driving performance. Human Factors, 45, 218 233.
    • Rogers, N. (2008). Trends in motorcycles fleet worldwide. Presentation to Joint OECD/ ITF Transport Research Committee Workshop on Motorcycling Safety. Retrieved from http://www.internationaltransport forum.org/jtrc/safety/Lillehammer2008/Lille hammer08Rogers.pdf
    • Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). (2001). Motorcycling Safety Position Paper [Online]. Retrieved from http:// www.rpspa.co.uk/pdfs/road/motorcycle.pdf
    • Rutter, D.R., & Quine, L. (1996). Age and experience in motorcycling safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28, 15 21.
    • Scott-Parker, B., Watson, B., & King, M.J. (2010, June). The risky behaviour of young drivers: Developing a measurement tool. Proceedings of the 24th Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference, Niagara Falls, Canada.
    • Scott-Parker, B., Watson, B., King, M.J., & Hyde, M.K. (2011). The psychological distress of the young novice driver: A brief report. Injury Prevention, 17, 275 277.
    • Scott-Parker, B., Watson, B., King, M.J., & Hyde, M.K. The influence of sensitivity to reward and punishment, propensity for sensation seeking, depression and anxiety on the risky behaviour of novice drivers: A path model [Online first]. British Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1111/j.2044- 8295.2011.02069.x
    • Simons-Morton, B., Lerner, N., & Singer, J. (2005). The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 973 982.
    • Simons-Morton, B., Ouimet, M.C., & Catalano, R.F. (2008). Parenting and the young driver problem. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3S), S294 S303.
    • Sims, R.V., McGwin, G. Jr., Allman, R.M., Ball, K., & Owsley, C. (2000). Exploratory study of incident vehicle crashes among older drivers. Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55, M22 M27.
    • Sims, V., Owsley, C., Allman, R.M., Ball, K., & Smoot, T.M. (1998). A preliminary assessment of the medical and functional factors associated with vehicle crashes by older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 556 561.
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (2009). Driving: Through the eyes of teens. Retrieved 10 October, 2009, from http:// www/chop/edu/youngdrivers.
    • Treffner, P., Barrett, R., & Petersen, A. (2002). Stability and skill in driving. Human Movement Science, 21, 749 784.
    • Tung, S.H., Wong, S.V., Law, T.H., & Umar, R.S. (2008). Crashes with roadside objects along motorcycle lanes in Malaysia. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 13(2), 205 210.
    • Twisk, D.A.M., & Stacey, C. (2007). Trends in young driver risk and countermeasures in European countries. Journal of Safety Research, 38, 245 257.
    • Unsworth, C.A., Wells, Y., Browning, C., Thomas, A., & Kendig, H. (2007). To continue, modify, or relinquish driving: Findings from a longitudinal study of healthy aging. Gerontology, 53, 423 431.
    • Vassallo, S., Smart, D., Sanson, A., Harrison, W., Harris, A., Cockfield, S., & McIntyre, A. (2007). Risky driving among young Australian drivers: Trends, precursors and correlates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 444 458.
    • Viano, D.C., Culver, C.C., Evans, L., Frick, M., & Scott, R. (1990). Involvement of older drivers in multi-vehicle side impact crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 22, 177 188.
    • Waller, P.F., Elliott, M.R., Shope, J.T., Raghunathan, T.E., & Little, R.J.A. (2001). Changes in young adult offense and crash patterns over time. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33, 117 128.
    • Williams, A.F. (2003). Teenage drivers: Patterns of risk. Journal of Safety Research, 34, 5 15.
    • Williams, A.F., Ferguson, S.A., & McCartt, A.T. (2007). Passenger effects on teenage driving and opportunities for reducing the risks of such travel. Journal of Safety Research, 38, 381 390.
    • Williams, A.F., & Wells, J.K. (1995). Deaths of teenagers as motor-vehicle passengers. Journal of Safety Research, 26, 161 167.
    • Wood, J.M., & Mallon, K.L. (2001). Comparison of driving performance of young and old drivers (with and without visual impairment) measured during in-traffic conditions. Optometry and Vision Science, 78, 343 349.
    • Zhang, J., Fraser, S., Lindsay, J., Clarke, K., & Mao, Y. (1998). Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Focus on young and elderly drivers. Public Health, 112, 289 295.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from