Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Björk, Göran; Nohr, Christian; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Lindberg, Amund E. B. (2008)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Tellus A
Languages: English
Types: Article
A bottom mounted ADCP has monitored the ice motion and thickness in Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea during the entire winter season 2004. The ADCP was deployed at 20 m depth at Falkensgrund well outside the land fast ice zone. The data shows that the ice motion is primarily driven by the wind but with a clear influence of internal ice stresses. The ice stresses become more dominant as the ice grow thicker with increasing number of observations with nearly stationary ice for relatively high wind speeds. A clear dependence of the ice/wind speed ratio to wind shifts is detected with higher ratio in the new wind direction. The effect of strain hardening is also seen in several events as decreasing ice speed, sometimes to zero, in spite of constant wind speed and wind direction. A rough force balance computation gives a compressive ice strength of about 9 × 104 N m−2, which is much larger than normally used in numerical ice models. The ice thickness data show numerous ice ridges with ice draft well above 1 m passing the instrument. The ridges make up a large portion, 30–50%, of the total ice volume showing that dynamical processes are important for the total ice production in the Bothnian Bay.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Belliveau, D. J., Bugden, G. L., Eid, B. M. and Calnan, C. J. 1990. Sea ice velocity-measurements by upward-looking doppler current profilers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7(4), 596-602.
    • Granskog, M., Kartokallio, H., Kuosa, H, Thomas, D. N. and Vainio, J. 2006. Sea ice in the Baltic Sea-a review. Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci. 70, 145-160.
    • Haapala, J. and Leppa¨ranta, M. 1996. Simulating the Baltic Sea ice season with a coupled ice-ocean model. Tellus, Ser. A 48A, 622-643.
    • IRIS, 2003. Ice Ridging Information for Decision Making in Shipping Operations. EU project homepage: http://www.tkk.fi/Units/ Ship/Research/Iris/Public/
    • Joffre, S. M., 1982. Momentum and heat transfers in the surface layer over a frozen sea. Boundary-Layer Met. 24(2), 211-229.
    • Jacob, D. and Omstedt, A. (eds.) 2005. BALTEX PHASE 1: 1993-2002, State of the Art Report. BALTEX Publication No. 31, 181 pages.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. 1981. On the structure and mechanics of pack ice in the Bothnian Bay. Finnish Mar. Res. 248, 3-86.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. and Omstedt, A. 1990. Dynamic coupling of sea ice and water for an ice field with free boundaries. Tellus, Ser. A 42A, 482-495.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. and Hakala, R. 1992. The structure and strength of firstyear ice ridges in the Baltic Sea. Cold Regions Sci. Technol. 20, 295- 311.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. 1998. The dynamics of sea ice. Lecture notes from a summer school in Savonlinna, Finland 6-17 june 1994. In: Physics of Ice-Covered Seas, (ed. Matti Leppa¨ranta). Helsinki University Press, Helsinki, 305-342.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M., Sun, Y. and Haapala, J. 1998. Comparison of sea ice velocity fields from ERS-1 SAR and dynamic model. J. Glaciol. 44, 248-262.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. and Omstedt, A. 1999. A review of ice time series of the Baltic Sea. Publications Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis, 84, 7-10.
    • Leppa¨ranta, M. 2005. The Drift of Sea Ice. Springer, Helsinki, 266 p.
    • Omstedt, A., Elken, J., Lehmann, A. and Piechura, J. 2004. Knowledge of the Baltic Sea physics gained during the BALTEX and related programmes. Prog. Oceanogr. 63(1-2), 1-28.
    • Samuelsson, M. and Stigebrandt, A. 1996. Main characteristics of the long-term sea level variability in the Baltic Sea. Tellus 48A, 672- 683.
    • Shcherbina, A. Y., Rudnick, D. L. and Talley, L. 2005. Ice-draft profiling from bottom-mounted ADCP data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 22(8), 1249-1266.
    • Thorndike, A. S. and Colony, R. 1982. Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic wind. J. Geophys. Res. 87(C8), 5845-5852.
    • Thorndike, A. S., Rothrock, D. A., Maykut, G. A. and Colony, R. 1975. The thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res. 80(33), 4501- 4519.
    • Uotila, J. 2001. Observed and modelled sea-ice drift response to wind forcing in the northern Baltic Sea. Tellus 53A, 112-128.
    • Zhang, Z. H. and Leppa¨ranta, M. 1995. Modeling the influence of ice on sea level variations in the Baltic Sea. Geophysica 31(2), 31- 45.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from