Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Cai, M.; Yang, S.; Van Den Dool, H. M.; Kousky, V. E. (2007)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Tellus A
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

arxiv: Physics::Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics::Fluid Dynamics
A local quasi-geostrophic energetics analysis indicates that within the jet core, low-frequency (LF) eddies behave baroclinically essentially the same as high-frequency (HF) eddies. They both have a westward tilting vertical structure and both grow baroclinically by transporting heat poleward and by converting eddy potential energy to kinetic energy. However, the difference in the horizontal orientations of HF and LF eddies has several important implications to their amplitude and peak locations, as well as their interaction with stationary waves. The barotropic decay of meridionally elongated HF eddies tends to terminate the growth of HF eddies beyond the jet exit region. The barotropic growth of the zonally elongated LF eddies not only ensure a continuous growth of LF eddies in the jet exit region, but also results in a new baroclinic growth of LF eddies farther downstream due to the presence of the west–east temperature contrast associated with stationary waves. The continuous growth of LF eddies due to both barotropic and baroclinic processes in the jet exit region is consistent with the facts that LF eddies reach maximum variability farther downstream of the two major jet streams and that the LF variability is much stronger than HF eddies. The results of energetics analysis are confirmed by the feedback analysis, showing that HF eddies, being dominated by meridional orientations, mainly act to maintain (damp) stationary waves by locally enhancing (reducing) north–south gradient of the height (temperature) field near the jet core regions. The zonally elongated LF eddies, on the other hand, act to primarily reduce the zonal gradient associated with stationary waves both barotropically and baroclinically.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Andrew, D. G. 1983. A conservation law for small-amplitude quasigeostrophic disturbances on a zonally asymmetric basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 85-90.
    • Black, R. X. 1998. The maintenance of extratropical intraseasonal transient eddy activity in the GEOS-1 assimilated dataset. J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 3159-3175.
    • Black, R. X. and Dole, R. M. 2000. Storm tracks and barotropic deformation in climate models. J. Climate 13, 2712-2728.
    • Blackmon, M. L., Wallace, J. M., Lau, N.-C. and Mullen, S. L. 1977. An observational study of the northern hemisphere wintertime circulation. J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1040-1053.
    • Branstator, G. W. 1995. Organization of stormtrack anomalies by recurring low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 207-226.
    • Cai, M. 1992. A physical interpretation for the stability property of a localized disturbance in a deformation flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2177- 2182.
    • Cai, M. 2003. Local instability dynamics of storm tracks. Observation, Theory and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability, eds X. Zhu, and coeditors, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 3-38.
    • Cai, M. and Mak, M. 1990a. On the basic dynamics of regional cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1417-1442.
    • Cai, M. and Mak, M. 1990b. Symbiotic relation between planetary and synoptic scale waves. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2953-2968.
    • Cai, M. and van den Dool, H. M. 1991. Low-Frequency waves and traveling storm tracks. Part I: Barotropic component. J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 1420-1436.
    • Cai, M. and van den Dool, H. M. 1992. Low-Frequency waves and traveling storm Tracks. Part II: Three-dimensional structure. J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2506-2524.
    • Chang, E. K. M., Lee, S.-Y. and Swanson, K. L. 2002. Storm track dynamics. J. Climate 15, 2163-2183.
    • Cressman, G. F. 1981. Circulations of the West Pacific jet stream. Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 2450-2463.
    • Cressman, G. F. 1984. Energy transformation in the East Asia-West Pacific jet stream. Mon. Wea. Rev. 112, 563-571.
    • Cuff, T. J. and Cai, M. 1995. Interaction between the low- and highfrequency transients in the Southern Hemisphere winter circulation. Tellus 47A, 331-350.
    • Dole, R. M. and Black, R. X. 1990. Life cycle of persistent anomalies. Part II: The development of persistent negative height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118, 824-846.
    • Edmon, H. J., Hoskins, B. J. and McIntyre, M. E. 1980. Eliassen-Palm cross section for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2600-2616.
    • Egger, J. and Schilling, H.-D. 1983. On the theory of the long-term variability of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1073-1085.
    • Farrel, B. F. 1989. Transient development in confluent and diffluent flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3279-3288.
    • Hanning, R. W. 1983. Kaiser windows and optimization. In Digital Filters 2nd Edition (R. W. Hanning), 257 pp.. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, United States, 167-187.
    • Held, I. M., Lyons, S. W. and Nigam, S. 1989. Transients and the extratropical response to El Nin˜o. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 163-176.
    • Hoskins, B. J., James, I. N. and White, G. H. 1983. The shape, propagation and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1595-1612.
    • Iacono, R. 2002. Local energy generation in barotropic flows. J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2153-2163.
    • Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D. and coauthors, 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 77, 437-471.
    • Kistler, R., Kalnay, E., Collins, W., Saha, S., White, G. and co-authors, 2001. The NCEP/NCAR 50-year reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 82, 247-268.
    • Lau, N.-C. 1988. Variability of the observed midlatitude storm tracks in relation to low-frequency changes in the circulation pattern. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 2718-2743.
    • Lau, N.-C. and Holopainen, E. O. 1984. Transit eddy forcing of the timemean flow as identified by geopotential tendencies. J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 313-328.
    • Lau, N.-C. and Nath, M. J. 1991. Variability of the baroclinic and barotropic transient eddy forcing associated with monthly changes in the midlatitude storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 2589-2613.
    • Limpasuvan, V. and Hartmann, D. L. 1999. Eddies and the annular modes of climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3133-3136.
    • Limpasuvan, V. and Hartmann, D. L. 2000. Wave-maintained annular modes of climate variability. J. Climate 7, 1144-1163.
    • Mak, M. and Cai, M. 1989. Local barotropic instability. J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3289-3311.
    • Peng, S. and Whitaker, J. S. 1999. Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Climate 12, 1393- 1408.
    • Plumb, R. A. 1986. Three-dimensional propagation of transient quasigeostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the time mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 1657-1678.
    • Robinson, W. A. 1991. The dynamics of low-frequency variability in a simple model of the global atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 429- 441.
    • Sheng, J. and Derome, J. 1991. An observational study of the energy transfer between the seasonal mean flow and transient eddies. Tellus 43A, 128-144.
    • Simmons, A. J., Wallace, J. M. and Branstator, G. W. 1983. Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and the atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 1362-1392.
    • Shutts, G. J. 1983. The propagation of eddies in diffluent jetstreams: Eddy vorticity forcing of “blocking” flow fields. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 109, 737-761.
    • Swanson, K. L. 2000. Stationary wave accumulation and generation of low-frequency variability on zonally varying flows. J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 2262-2280.
    • Swanson, K. L. 2001. Blocking as a local instability to zonally varying flows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 127, 1341-1355.
    • Swanson, K. L. 2002. Dynamical aspects of extratropical tropospheric low-frequency variability. J. Climate 15, 2145-2162.
    • Swanson, K. L., Kushner, P. J. and Held, I. M. 1997. Dynamics of barotropic storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 791-810.
    • Takaya, K. and Nakamura, H. 2001. A formulation of a phaseindependent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 608-627.
    • Ting, M. 1994. Maintenance of northern summer stationary waves in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3286-3308.
    • Ting, M. and Held, I. M. 1990. The stationary wave response to a tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2546-2566.
    • Watanabe, M. and Kimoto, M. 2000. On the persistence of decadal SST anomalies in the North Atlantic. J. Climate 13, 3017-3028.
    • Whitaker, J. S. and Dole, R. M. 1995. Organization of storm tracks in zonally varying flows. J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1265-1280.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from