Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Vukićević, Tomislava; Braswell, Bobby H.; Schimel, David (2001)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
The observed interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 reflects short-term variability in sources and sinks of CO2. Analyses using 13CO2and O2 suggest that much of the observed interannual variability is due to changes in terrestrial CO2 exchange. First principles, empirical correlations and process models suggest a link between climate variation and net ecosystem exchange, but the scaling of ecological process studies to the globe is notoriously difficult. We sought to identify a component of global CO2 exchange that varied coherently with land temperature anomalies using an inverse modeling approach. We developed a family of simplified spatially aggregated ecosystem models (designated K-model versions) consisting of five compartments: atmospheric CO2, live vegetation, litter, and two soil pools that differ in turnover times. The pools represent cumulative differences from mean C storage due to temperature variability and can thus have positive or negative values. Uptake and respiration of CO2 are assumed to be linearly dependent on temperature. One model version includes a simple representation of the nitrogen cycle in which changes in the litter and soil carbon pools result in stoichiometric release of plant-available nitrogen, the other omits the nitrogen feedback. The model parameters were estimated by inversion of the model against global temperature and CO2 anomaly data using the variational method. We found that the temperature sensitivity of carbon uptake (NPP) was less than that of respiration in all model versions. Analyses of model and data also showed that temperature anomalies trigger ecosystem changes on multiple, lagged time-scales. Other recent studies have suggested a more active land biosphere at Northern latitudes in response to warming and longer growing seasons. Our results indicate that warming should increase NPP, consistent with this theory, but that respiration should increase more than NPP, leading to decreased or negative NEP. A warming trend could, therefore increase NEP if the indirect feedbacks through nutrients were larger than the direct effects of temperature on NPP and respiration, a conjecture which can be tested experimentally. The fraction of the growth rate not predicted by the K-model represents model and data errors, and variability in anthropogenic release, ocean uptake, and other processes not explicitly represented in the model. These large positive and negative residuals from the K-model may be associated with the Southern Oscillation Index.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2001.d01-13.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Bennett A. F. and McIntosh, P. C. 1982. Open ocean modeling as an inverse problem: tidal theory. J. Phys. Oceanog. 12, 1004-1018.
    • Braswell, B. H., Schimel, D. S., Linder, E. and Moore, B. 1997. The response of global terrestrial ecosystems to interannual temperature variability. Science 238, 870-872.
    • Cao, M. and Woodward, F. I. 1998. Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change. Nature 393, 249-252.
    • Chapin, F. S., Shaver, G. R., Giblin, A. E., NadelhoVer, K. J. and Laundre, J. A. 1995. Responses of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76, 694-711.
    • Ciais, P., Tans, P. P., Trolier, M., White, M. and Francey, R. J. 1995. A large Northern Hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science 269, 1098-1102.
    • Ciais, P., Tans. P. P., Denning, A. S. Francey, R. J., Trolier, M., Meijer, H. A. J., White, J. W. C., Berry, J. A., Randall, D. A., Collatz, G. J., Sellers, P. J., Monfray, P. and Heimann, M. 1997. A three-dimensional synthesis study of delta18O in atmospheric CO2, 1: Surface fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5857-5872.
    • Daley, R. 1991. Atmospheric data analysis. Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series (J. T. Houghton, M. J. Rycroft and A. J. Dessler, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 457 pp.
    • Enting I. G. and Mansbridge, J. V. 1991. Latitudinal distribution of sources and sinks of CO2: results of an inversion study. T ellus 43B, 156-170.
    • Fan, S., Gloor, M., Mahlman, J., Pacala, S., Sarmiento, J., Takahashi, T. and Tans, P. P. 1998. A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic CO2 data and models. Science 282, 442-446.
    • Gillette, D. A., Komhyr, W. D., Waterman, L. S., Steele, L. P. and Gammon, R. H. 1987. The NOAA/GMCC continuous CO2 record at the South Pole, 1975-1982. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4231-4240.
    • Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S.-M., Daube, B. C. and Wofsy, S. C. 1996. Science 271, 1576-1578.
    • Hall, M. C. G., Caccuci, D. G. and Schlesinger, M. E. 1982. Sensitivity analysis of a radiative convective model by the adjoint method. J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 2083-2050.
    • Holland, E. A., Townsend, A. R. and Vitousek, P. M. 1995. Variability in temperature regulation of CO2 fluxes and N mineralization from five Hawaiian soils: implications for a changing climate. Global Change Biology 1, 115-123.
    • Houghton, R. A., Davidson, E. A. and Woodwell, G. M. 1998. Missing sinks, feedbacks, and understanding the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon balance. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 12, 25-34.
    • Jones, P. D. 1994. Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993. J. Climate 7, 1794-1802.
    • Keeling, C. D., Whorf, T. P., Wahlen, M. and van der Plicht, J. 1995. Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature 375, 666-670.
    • Kendall, M. and Ord. J. K. 1990. T ime series. Edward Arnold Publishing, 3rd edition. Kent, UK. 296 pp.
    • Myneni, R. B., Keeling, C. D., Tucker, C. J., Asrar, G. and Nemani, R. R. 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature 386, 698-702.
    • Nepstad, D. C., Verissimo, Alencar, A., Nobre, C., Lima, E., Lefebvre, P., Schlesinger, P., Potter, C., Moutinho, P., Mendoza, E., Cochrane, M. and Brooks, V. 1999. Large scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398, 505-508.
    • Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., Bevan, A. and Folland, C. K. 1994. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late 19th century. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,373-14,399.
    • Parton, W. J., Schimel, D. S. and Cole, C. V. 1987. Dynamics of C, N, S, and P in grassland soils: A model. Biogeochemistry 5a, 109-131.
    • Parton, W. J., Scurlock, J. M. O., Ojima, D. S., Gilmanov, T. G., Scholes, R. J., Schimel, D. S., Kirchner, T., Menaut, J.-C., Seastedt, T.,Garcia Moya, E., Kamnalrut, A. and Kinyamario, J. I. 1993. Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7a, 785-809.
    • Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T. and Flannery, B. P. 1992. Numerical Recipes in C: T he art of scientific computing, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
    • Randerson, J. T., Thompson, M. V., Conway, T. J., Fung, I. Y. and Field, C. B. 1997. The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11, 535-560.
    • Rayner, P. J. and Law, R. M. 1999. The interannual variability of the global carbon cycle. T ellus 51B, 210-212.
    • Rayner, P. J., Law, R. M. and Dargaville, R. 1999. The relationship between tropical CO2 fluxes and the El Nin˜ o-Southern Oscillation. Geophysical Research L etters 26, 493-496.
    • Schimel, D. S. 1995. Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 1, 77-91.
    • Schimel, D. S., Braswell, B. H., Holland, E. A., McKeown, R., Ojima, D. S., Painter, T. H., Parton, W. J. and Townsend, A. R. 1994. Climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls over storage and turnover of carbon in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 8, 279-293.
    • Schimel, D. S., Braswell, B. H., McKeown, R., Ojima, D. S., Parton, W. J. and Pulliam, W. 1996. Climate and nitrogen controls on the geography and time scales of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 677-692.
    • Schimel, D. S., VEMAP Participants, and Braswell, B. H. 1997. Continental scale variability in ecosystem processes: models, data, and the role of disturbance. Ecological Monographs 67, 251-271.
    • Smedstad O. M. and O'Brien, J. J. 1991. Variational data assimilation and parameter estimation in an equatorial Pacific Ocean model. Progr. Oceanog. 26, 179-241.
    • Tarantola, A. 1987. Inverse Problem T heory. Elsevier Science B. V., 613 pp.
    • Tans, P. P., Fung, I. Y. and Takahashi, T. 1990. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Science 247, 1431-1438.
    • Thoning, K. W., Tans, P. P., and Komhyr, W. D. 1989. Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2. Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974-1985. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8549-8565.
    • Tian, H., Melillo, J. M., Kicklighter, D. W., McGuire, A. D., Helfrich, J. V. K., Moore, B. and Vorosmarty, C. J. 1998. EVect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature 396, 664-667.
    • Trenberth, K. 1984. Signal versus noise in the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 112, 326-332.
    • Trumbore, S. E., Chadwick, O. A. and Amundson, R. 1996. Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change. Science 272, 393-405.
    • Vukic´evic´, T. and Raeder, K. 1995. Use of an adjoint model for finding triggers for Alpine lee cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123, 800-816.
    • Vukic´evuc´, T. and Hess, P. 2000. Analysis of tropospheric transport during MLOPEX using adjoint technique. Geophys. Res. 105, 7213-7230.
    • Waring, R. H. and Running, S. W. 1998. Forest ecosystems: analysis at multiple scales. San Diego: Academic Press, 231 pp.
    • Zou, X., Navon, I. M. and Le Dimet, F. X. 1992. An optimal nudging data assimilation scheme using parameter estimation. Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 118, 1163-1186.
    • Zou, X., Barcilon, A., Navon, I. M., Whitaker, J. and Caccuci, D. G. 1993. An adjoint sensitivity study of blocking in a two-layer isentropic model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 2833-2857.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from