LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Axelsson, Jóhann; Ragnarsdóttir, Sólveig; Pind, Jörgen; Sigbjörnsson, Ragnar (2004)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: chromaticity, daylight, Iceland, irradiance, seasonal affective disorder

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: genetic structures
Objectives. Surveys on winter depression in Iceland indicate a significantly lower prevalence rate of winter SAD than expected according to Iceland’s latitude. Research into daylight availability in Iceland failed to reveal factors contributing to higher average daylight availability than predicted by latitude. In view of the well-known healing effects of bright light treatment, we propose that properties of daylight other than daylight availability may ease the symptoms of winter depression. Method. We analysed the spectral composition of daylight in Iceland as expressed by its chromaticity and assessed its seasonal and diurnal variations. The colorimetric properties of daylight during the year 1998 are dealt with in detail. Perception of daylight is modelled, applying the chromaticity model of MacLeod and Boynton along with environmental data on spectral irradiance recorded on location at 64°8.8’ N and 21°55.8’ W in Reykjavik, Iceland, and recently published data on cone fundamentals by Stockman and Sharpe. Results. The main finding is that blue hue dominates the colour of the sky, with high correlated colour temperature, without significant seasonal variations. Diurnal variations are, however, observed. Furthermore, significant deviation from ‘standard’ sky is detected. Conclusions. It is not known whether the observed chromaticity of daylight is a significant factor in explaining the unexpectedly low prevalence rate of seasonal affective disorder in Iceland.(Int J Circumpolar Health 2004; 63(2):145-156)Keywords: chromaticity, daylight, Iceland, irradiance, seasonal affective disorder
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and In Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. (eds.), The Psychobiology Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : DSM-IV (4th of Bulimia, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, ed).Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association D.C., 1987, pp. 205-228.
    • 1994. 7. Kasper S, Rogers SLB,Yancey A, Schulz PM, Skwerer Magnusson A, Axelsson J. SAD in Iceland. Light Treat- RG, Rosenthal NE. Phototherapy in Individuals With ment and Biological Rhythms 1993;5(4):57-58. or Without Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder.
    • Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin, JC et al. Seasonal Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989;46:837-844.
    • affective disorder. A description of syndrome and 8. Kasper S,Wehr TA, Bartko JJ, Gaist PA, Rosenthal NE.
    • preliminary findings with light therapy. Arch Gen Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood Psychiatry 1984;41(l):72-80. and behavior: A Telephone Survey of Montgomery Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Carpenter CJ, Parry BL, County, Maryland. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989;46;823- Mendelson WB, Wehr TA. Antidepressant effects of 833.
    • light in seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 9. Rosen LN, Targum SD, Terman et al. Prevalence of 1985;142,163-170. seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes. Psychiatry Rosenthal NE, Bradt GH,Wehr TA. Seasonal Pattern Res 1990;31:131-144.
    • Assessment Questionnaire. Bethesda (MD): National 10. Lingjaerde O, Brathlid T, Hanse T, Gotestam K. Seasonal Institute of Mental Health; 1987. affective disorder and midwinter insomnia in the far Rosenthal NE, Genhart MJ, Sack DA, Skwerer RG, north: studies of two related chronobiological disorWehr TA: Seasonal affective disorder and its rele- ders in Norway. Clin. Neuropharmacol 1986;9 vance for the understanding and treatment of bulimia. (Suppl. 4):187-189.
    • 11. Potkin SG, Zetin M, Stamenkovich V, Kripke D, Bunney 22. MacLeod DIA, Boynton RM. Chromaticity diagram WJ. Seasonal affective disorder: prevalence varies showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal lumiwith latitude and climate. Clin Neuropharmacol nance. J Opt Soc Am 1979;69:1183-1186. 1986;4,181-193. 23. Stockman A, Sharpe LT.The spectral sensitivity of the 12. Axelsson J, Stefansson JG, Magnusson A, Sigvaldason middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cone derived H, Karlsson MM. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47(2):153-158. from measurements in observers of known genotype.
    • 13. Wehr TA, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE. Seasonal affective Vision Res 2000;40(13):1711-1738. disorder with summer depression and winter hypo- 24. Stockman A, Sharpe LT.Tritanopic color matches and mania.Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:1602-1603. the the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cone 14. Boyce P, Parker G. Seasonal affective disorder in the spectral sensitivities. Vision Res 2000;40(13):1739- southern hemisphere. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145(1): 1750. 96-99. 25. Rea MS (editor-in-chief). Lighting Handbook: Refe15. Magnusson A, Stefansson JG. Prevalence of seasonal rence and Application. New York: Illuminating Engiaffective disorder in Iceland. Arch Gen Psychiatry neering Society of North America 1993. 1993;50:941-946. 26. Wyszecki G, Stiles WS. Color Science: Concepts and 16. Magnusson A,Axelsson J.The prevalence of seasonal Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae. New affective disorder is low among descendants of Ice- York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc 1982. landic emigrants in Canada. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27. Rodieck RW.The First Steps in Seeing. Massachusetts, 1993;50(12):947-951. USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc 1998.
    • 17. Stefansson JG, Magnusson A, Karlsson MM, Axelsson 28. Kaiser PK, Boynton RM. Human Color Vision (2nd J. Low prevalence of seasonal affective disorders in edition).Wasington, DC: Optical Society of America Icelanders and Canadians of Icelandic descent. In G. 1996. Petursdottir, S.B. Sigurdsson, M.M. Karlsson, & J. 29. Henderson, S. T. Daylight and its Spectrum. Bristol: Axelsson (editors), Proceedings of the 9th Interna- Adam Hilger Ltd 1977. tional Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavik. 30. Malacara D. Color Vision and Colorimetry: Theory Arctic Med Res 1994;53(suppl 2):491-492. and Applications.Washington, USA: SPIE - The Inter18. Ozaki N, Ono Y, Ito A, Rosenthal NE. Prevalence of national Society for Optical Engineering 2002. seasonal difficulties in mood and behaviour among 31. Karadottir R, Axelsson J. Melatonin secretion in Japanese civil servants. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152: SAD patients and healthy subjects matched with 1225-7. respect to age and sex. Int J Circumpolar Health 19. Madden PA, Heath AC, Rosenthal NE, Martin NG. 2001;60:548-551. Seasonal changes in mood and behaviour:The role of 32. Vakkuri O. Diurnal rhythm of melatonin in human genetic factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996;53(1):47-55. saliva.Acta physiol Scand 1985;124,409-412.
    • 20. Axelsson J, Ragnarsdottir S, Pind J, Sigbjornsson R. 33. Skene DJ. Optimization of Light and Melatonin to Daylight availability: A poor predictor of depression Phase-Shift Human Circadian Rhythms. J Neuroin Iceland. Submitted for publication to Int J Circum- endocrinol 2003, 15, 438-41. polar Health 2004.
    • 21. Partonen T, Magnusson A. (Eds.). Seasonal Affective Disorder: Practice and Research. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2001.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from