LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Brummer, Robert-J M. (2005)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Food & Nutrition Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
The "brain-gut axis" is a multicomponent conceptual model describing the bidirectional communication pathways connecting cognitive and emotional centres in the brain with neuroendocrine centres, the enteric nervous system and the immune system. This model enables novel explanations for the comorbidity of affective disorders, especially concerning mood and anxiety, in functional gastrointestinal disorders, the visceral hypersensitivity, as well as the effect of various acute and chronic stressors on gastrointestinal function. Furthermore, it offers the possibility to develop new biomarkers of integrated brain-gut function. This review discusses the possibilities to modify brain-gut interaction by nutritional means, offered by the brain-gut axis concept. Dietary interventions directed at serotonergic metabolism and its action in the brain, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids affecting both brain function and inflammatory cytokine profiles, and gut hormones are elaborated. The central role of the autonomic nervous system is also discussed. It is concluded that the concept of the brain-gut axis indeed enables the development of novel dietary intervention strategies in functional gastrointestinal disorders, but results directly transferable to daily practice are not immediately anticipated.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Talley NJ, Spiller R. Irritable bowel syndrome: a little understood organic bowel disease? Lancet 2002; 360: 555 /64.
    • 2. Thompson WG, Longstreth GF, Drossman DA, Heaton KW, Irvine EJ, Muller-Lissner SA. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain. Gut 1999; 45 Suppl 2: II43 /7.
    • 3. Azpiroz F. Hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut 2002; 51 Suppl 1: i25 /8.
    • 4. Delvaux M. Role of visceral sensitivity in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2002; 51 Suppl 1: i67 /71.
    • 5. Mertz H. Review article: visceral hypersensitivity. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 623 /33.
    • 6. Ringel Y, Sperber AD, Drossman DA. Irritable bowel syndrome. Annu Rev Med 2001; 52: 319 /38.
    • 7. Mayer EA, Gebhart GF. Basic and clinical aspects of visceral hyperalgesia. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 271 / 93.
    • 8. Walker EA, Roy-Byrne PP, Katon WJ, Li L, Amos D, Jiranek G. Psychiatric illness and irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 1656 /61.
    • 9. Dunlop SP, Jenkins D, Neal KR, Spiller RC. Relative importance of enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, anxiety, and depression in postinfectious IBS. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 1651 /9.
    • 10. Noyes R Jr, Cook B, Garvey M, Summers R. Reduction of gastrointestinal symptoms following treatment for panic disorder. Psychosomatics 1990; 31: 75 /9.
    • 11. Walker EA, Katon WJ, Jemelka RP, Roy-Bryne PP. Comorbidity of gastrointestinal complaints, depression, and anxiety in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Am J Med 1992; 92(1A): 26 /30S.
    • 12. Zaubler TS, Katon W. Panic disorder and medical comorbidity: a review of the medical and psychiatric literature. Bull Menninger Clin 1996; 60(2 Suppl A): A12 /38.
    • 13. Lydiard RB. Anxiety and the irritable bowel syndrome: psychiatric, medical, or both? J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58 Suppl 3:51 /8; Discussion 59 /61.
    • 14. Kilkens TO, Honig A, Rozendaal N, Van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brummer RJ. Systematic review: serotonergic modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome / influence on psychiatric and gastrointestinal symptoms. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 43 /51.
    • 15. Tyce GM. Origin and metabolism of serotonin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1990; 16 Suppl 3: S1 /7.
    • 16. Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Cox HS, Vaz M, Turner AG, Jennings GL, et al. Regional 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid production in humans. Life Sci 1995; 57: 255 /67.
    • 17. Da Prada M, Tranzer JP, Pletscher A. Storage of 5- hydroxytryptamine in human blood platelets. Experientia 1972; 28: 1328 /9.
    • 18. Creed F, Fernandes L, Guthrie E, Palmer S, Ratcliffe J, Read N, et al. The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy and paroxetine for severe irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 303 /17.
    • 19. Jackson JL, O'Malley PG, Tomkins G, Balden E, Santoro J, Kroenke K. Treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders with antidepressant medications: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2000; 108: 65 /72.
    • 20. Clouse RE. Antidepressants for irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2003; 52: 598 /9.
    • 21. Kim DY, Camilleri M. Serotonin: a mediator of the brain /gut connection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 2698 /709.
    • 22. Kilkens TO, Honig A, van Nieuwenhoven MA, Riedel WJ, Brummer RJ. Acute tryptophan depletion affects brain /gut responses in irritable bowel syndrome patients and controls. Gut 2004; 53: 1794 /800.
    • 23. Pardridge WM. Blood /brain barrier carrier-mediated transport and brain metabolism of amino acids. Neurochem Res 1998; 23: 635 /44.
    • 24. O'Kane RL, Hawkins RA. Na -dependent transport of large neutral amino acids occurs at the abluminal membrane of the blood /brain barrier. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003; 285: E1167 /73.
    • 25. Riedel WJ, Sobczak S, Schmitt JA. Tryptophan modulation and cognition. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 527: 207 /13.
    • 26. Markus CR, Panhuysen G, Tuiten A, Koppeschaar H, Fekkes D, Peters ML. Does carbohydrate-rich, proteinpoor food prevent a deterioration of mood and cognitive performance of stress-prone subjects when subjected to a stressful task? Appetite 1998; 31: 49 /65.
    • 27. Smits KM, Smits LJ, Schouten JS, Stelma FF, Nelemans P, Prins MH. Influence of SERTPR and STin2 in the serotonin transporter gene on the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression: a systematic review. Mol Psychiatry 2004; 9: 433 /41.
    • 28. Camilleri M. Is there a SERT-ain association with IBS? Gut 2004; 53: 1396 /9.
    • 29. Zhang X, Gainetdinov RR, Beaulieu JM, Sotnikova TD, Burch LH, Williams RB, et al. Loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. Neuron 2005; 45: 11 /6.
    • 30. Carrasco GA, Van de Kar LD. Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress. Eur J Pharmacol 2003; 463: 235 /72.
    • 31. Raap DK, Van de Kar LD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and neuroendocrine function. Life Sci 1999; 65: 1217 /35.
    • 32. Santos J, Saperas E, Nogueiras C, Mourelle M, Antolin M, Cadahia A, et al. Release of mast cell mediators into the jejunum by cold pain stress in humans. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 640 /8.
    • 33. Tache Y, Martinez V, Million M, Wang L. Stress and the gastrointestinal tract III. Stress-related alterations of gut motor function: role of brain corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 280: G173 /7.
    • 34. So¨ derholm JD, Perdue MH. Stress and gastrointestinal tract. II. Stress and intestinal barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 280: G7 /13.
    • 35. Monnikes H, Tebbe JJ, Hildebrandt M, Arck P, Osmanoglou E, Rose M, et al. Role of stress in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Evidence for stress-induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility and sensitivity. Dig Dis 2001; 19: 201 /11.
    • 36. Raithel M, Winterkamp S, Pacurar A, Ulrich P, Hochberger J, Hahn EG. Release of mast cell tryptase from human colorectal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 174 /9.
    • 37. Vergnolle N, Bunnett NW, Sharkey KA, Brussee V, Compton SJ, Grady EF, et al. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 and hyperalgesia: a novel pain pathway. Nat Med 2001; 7: 821 /6.
    • 38. Bielefeldt K, Ozaki N, Gebhart GF. Role of nerve growth factor in modulation of gastric afferent neurons in the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 284: G499 /507.
    • 39. Mayer EA, Naliboff BD, Chang L, Coutinho SV. V. Stress and irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2001; 280: G519 /24.
    • 40. Barbara G, Stanghellini V, De Giorgio R, Cremon C, Cottrell GS, Santini D, et al. Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 693 /702.
    • 41. Markus CR, Olivier B, Panhuysen GE, Van Der Gugten J, Alles MS, Tuiten A, et al. The bovine protein alphalactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1536 /44.
    • 42. Sublette ME, Russ MJ, Smith GS. Evidence for a role of the arachidonic acid cascade in affective disorders: a review. Bipolar Disord 2004; 6: 95 /105.
    • 43. Anisman H, Merali Z, Poulter MO, Hayley S. Cytokines as a precipitant of depressive illness: animal and human studies. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11: 963 /72.
    • 44. Schiepers OJ, Wichers MC, Maes M. Cytokines and major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005; 29: 201 /17.
    • 45. Collins SM, Vallance B, Barbara G, Borgaonkar M. Putative inflammatory and immunological mechanisms in functional bowel disorders. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 1999; 13: 429 /36.
    • 46. Spiller RC. Inflammation as a basis for functional GI disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 18: 641 /61.
    • 47. Grimble RF, Howell WM, O'Reilly G, Turner SJ, Markovic O, Hirrell S, et al. The ability of fish oil to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy men is associated with polymorphisms in genes that influence tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 454 /9.
    • 48. Young G, Conquer J. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev 2005; 45: 1 / 28.
    • 49. Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 477 /9.
    • 50. McEwen BS. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1032: 1 /7.
    • 51. Sher L. Type D personality: the heart, stress, and cortisol. QJM 2005; 98: 323 /9.
    • 52. Song C, Kenis G, van Gastel A, Bosmans E, Lin A, de Jong R, et al. Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural antiinflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T lymphocytes. Psychiatry Res 1999; 85: 293 /303.
    • 53. Mayer EA, Collins SM. Evolving pathophysiologic models of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 2032 /48.
    • 54. So¨ derholm JD, Streutker C, Yang PC, Paterson C, Singh PK, McKay DM, et al. Increased epithelial uptake of protein antigens in the ileum of Crohn's disease mediated by tumour necrosis factor alpha. Gut 2004; 53: 1817 /24.
    • 55. Markovic O, O'Reilly G, Fussell HM, Turner SJ, Calder PC, Howell WM, et al. Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the relationship between serum lipids and inflammatory parameters, and the lipid-lowering effect of fish oil in healthy males. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 1084 /95.
    • 56. Hibbeln JR, Linnoila M, Umhau JC, Rawlings R, George DT, Salem N Jr. Essential fatty acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid among healthy control subjects, and early- and late-onset alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44: 235 /42.
    • 57. Chalon S, Vancassel S, Zimmer L, Guilloteau D, Durand G. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cerebral function: focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission. Lipids 2001; 36: 937 /44.
    • 58. Williams DL, Cummings DE. Regulation of ghrelin in physiologic and pathophysiologic states. J Nutr 2005; 135: 1320 /5.
    • 59. Bloom S, Wynne K, Chaudhri O. Gut feeling / the secret of satiety? Clin Med 2005; 5: 147 /52.
    • 60. Rehfeld JF. Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Cholecystokinin. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 18: 569 /86.
    • 61. Simren M, Abrahamsson H, Bjo¨ rnsson ES. An exaggerated sensory component of the gastrocolonic response in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2001; 48: 20 /7.
    • 62. De Giorgio R, Camilleri M. Human enteric neuropathies: morphology and molecular pathology. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2004; 16: 515 /31.
    • 63. Kobayashi H, Ishibashi K, Noguchi H. Heart rate variability; an index for monitoring and analyzing human autonomic activities. Appl Human Sci 1999; 18: 53 /9.
    • 64. Fagius J. Sympathetic nerve activity in metabolic control / some basic concepts. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 177: 337 /43.
    • 65. Kleiger RE, Stein PK, Bigger JT Jr. Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utility. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2005; 10: 88 /101.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from