LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ragnarsdóttir, Guðrún; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir (2014)
Publisher: Education Inquiry
Journal: Education Inquiry
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: crisis, educational changes, decentralised curriculum implementation, job satisfaction, occupational stress and workload, upper secondary school teachers
Iceland was one of the first countries to collapse in the global financial crisis of 2008 and it followed the OECD suggestion by opening upper secondary schools for young jobseekers, but without increasing the number of teachers. The upper secondary school level is also in a period of educational change, as it is in many other countries nowadays. The experience of Iceland provides valuable lessons for the international community. The article explores the effect of the economic crisis and the proposition that the policy is imposing on the work, well-being and working conditions of upper secondary school teachers in Iceland. The findings are based on a quantitative data from three surveys on upper secondary school teachers. In total, 52% of registered teachers in the Association of Teachers in Upper Secondary Schools returned the completed questionnaire in 2008, 49% in 2010 and 57% in 2012. The findings reveal significantly longer working days, increased pressure, workload and stress among teachers at the school level following the crisis and implementation of the curriculum, lower job satisfaction and less opportunity to serve students with special educational needs. The analysis suggests a need to invest more in the upper secondary school level as well as to focus on the professional development and well-being of teachers to ensure further improvement to prevent burnout and occupational drop-out.Keywords: Crisis, educational changes, decentralised curriculum implementation, job satisfaction, occupational stress and workload, upper secondary school teachers(Published: 7 March 2014)Citation: Education Inquiry (EDUI) 2014, 5, 24045, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/edui.v5.24045
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Act on Education and Requirement of Teachers and School Heads at the Early Childhood, Compulsory and Upper Secondary School Levels no. 87/2008. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http:// www.althingi.is/lagas/136a/2008087.html (Accessed 2013-12-20).
    • Additional Act no. 71/2010 on Upper Secondary School Act no. 92/2008. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://www.althingi.is/lagas/137/2008092.html (Accessed 2013-12-20).
    • Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios, Ploumpi, Aikaterini and Ntalla, Marina. (2013). Occupational stress and professional burnout in teachers of primary and secondary education: the role of coping strategies. Scientific Research 4(3A): 349 355. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2013. 43A051 (Accessed 2013-10-18).
    • Association of Teachers in Upper Secondary Schools. (2012). The teacher's job and salary related issues of education professionals at the upper secondary school level. Evaluation in early December 2012 [Kennarastarfið og kjarama´l f´elagsmanna K´I ´ı framhaldssko´lum St¨oðumat ´ı byrjun desember 2012], http://ki.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid 16015 (Accessed 2013-03-20).
    • Bracket, Marc A., Palomera, Raquel, Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna, Reyes, Maria Regina and Salovey, Peter. (2010). Emotion-regulation ability, burnout, and job satisfaction among British secondaryschool teachers. Psychology in the Schools 47(4): 406 417. http://search.proquest.com/ docview/622169747?accountid 14568 (Accessed 2013-10-18).
    • Claessens, Stijn, Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni, Igan, Deniz and Laeven, Luc. (2010). Cross-country experiences and policy implications from the global financial crisis. Economic Policy 25(62): 269 293. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0327.2010.00244.x/pdf (Accessed 2013-10-15).
    • Compulsory School Act no. 91/2008. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://www.althingi.is/altext/stjt/2008. 091.html (Accessed 2013-12-20).
    • Corvalan, Carlos, Hales, Simon and McMichael, Anthony. (2005). Ecosystems and human wellbeing. Health synthesis. Millennium ecosystem assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/ecosystems05/en/ (Accessed 2013-10-15).
    • Doble, Susan E. & Santha, J. C. (2008). Occupational well-being: rethinking occupational therapy outcomes. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(3), 184 190.
    • Early Childhood Education Act no. 90/2008. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://www.althingi.is/altext/ stjt/2008.090.html (Accessed 2013-12-20).
    • European Commission. (2008). The European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. http://ec.europa.eu/education/pub/pdf/general/eqf/leaflet_en.pdf (Accessed 2013-03-15).
    • Evans, Linda. (2001). Delving deeper into morale, job satisfaction and motivation among education professionals. Re-examining the leadership dimension. Educational Management and Administration 29(3): 291 306. http://ema.sagepub.com/content/29/3/291.full. pdf (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • Fisher, Molly H. (2011). Factors influencing stress, burnout, and retention of secondary teachers. Current Issues in Education, 14(1), 1 36.
    • Fr´ettablaðið. (2012). Ny´tt kjarasamkomulag við r´ıkið kolfellt af kennurum. 15 November 2012. http://www.visir.is/ExternalData/pdf/fbl/121115.pdf (Accessed 2013-05-01).
    • Fullan, Michael. (2007). The new meaning of educational change. 4th ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
    • Guðmundsson, Guðmundur Ingi and Rafnsdo´ttir, Guðbjo¨rg Linda. (2012). Starfsa´ngaeja framhaldssko´lakennara. Innri og ytri a´hrifaþaettir. Uppeldi og menntun 19(1 2): 113 127. http:// timarit.is/view_page_init.jsp?gegnirId 001171416 (Accessed 2013-15-10).
    • Hargreaves, Andy and Fullan, Michael. 2012. Professional capital. Transforming teaching in every school. London and New York: Routledge.
    • Houtman, Irene and Jettinghoff, Karin. (2007). Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries. A modern hazard in a traditional working environment. Advice to employers and worker representatives. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). http://www.who.int/ occupational_health/publications/raisingawarenessofstress.pdf (Accessed 2013-05-08).
    • Hreinsson, P´all, Benediktsdo´ttir, Sigr´ıður and Gunnarsson, Tryggvi. (2010). The Report of the Althingi Special Investigation Commission. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://sic.althingi.is/pdf/ RNAvefKafli2Enska.pdf (Accessed 2012-15-10).
    • Huber, Josef. (2013). Podcast: A teachers' manifesto for the 21st century. Human Rights Europe. Council of Europe. http://www.humanrightseurope.org/2013/08/podcast-a-teachers-manifestofor-the-21st-century/ (Accessed 2013-15-10).
    • Icelandic Teachers' Union. (2012). The Icelandic Teachers' Union election board. [Kj¨orstjo´rn Kennarasamband ´Islands]. http://www.ki.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid 15822. (Accessed 2013- 03-20).
    • Ingersoll, Richard M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortage. American Educational Research Journal, 38 (3): 499 534. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article 1093&context gse_pubs (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • Ingersoll, Richard M. (2002). The teacher shortage: a case of wrong diagnosis and wrong prescription. National Association of Secondary School Principals, 86(16): 16 31. http://bul. sagepub.com/content/86/631/16.full.pdf html (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • Jalongo, Mary Renck and Heider, Kelly. (2006). Editorial teacher attrition: an issue of national concern. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 33(6): 379 380.
    • Judge, Timothy A., Thoresen, Carl J., Bono, Joyce E. and Patton, Gregory K. (2001). The job satisfaction job performance relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3): 376 407. http://www.psicologia-uniroma4.it/LS/organizzazione/materiale/ The%20job%20satisfaction.pdf (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • Klassen, Robert M. and Chiu, Ming Ming. (2010). Effects on teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction: teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3): 741 756.
    • Klassen, Robert M., User, Ellen L. and Bong, Mimi. (2010). Teachers' collective efficacy, job satisfaction, and job stress in cross cultural context. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78(4): 464 486.
    • Kotter, John, P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    • Kristmundsson, O´ mar Hlynur. (2007). K¨onnun a´ starfsumhverfi r´ıkisstarfsmanna 2006. [Survey on the work environment of public staff in 2006] Reykjav´ık: Fja´rm´alara´ðuneytið. http://www. fjarmalaraduneyti.is/media/Starfsmannamal/Konnun-a-starfsumhverfi-rikisstarfsmanna-2006- nidurstodur.pdf (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • L¨og um framhaldssko´la no. 80/1996. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://www.althingi.is/lagas/135a/ 1996080.html (Accessed 2013-12-20).
    • McCarthy, Christopher J., Lambert, Richard G., Crowe, El´ızabeth W. and McCarthy, Colleen J. (2010). Coping, stress, and job satisfaction as predictors of advanced placement statistic teachers' intervention to leave the field. National Association of Secondary School Principals 94(4): 306 326. http://bul.sagepub.com/content/94/4/306.full.pdf html (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (1999). Aðalna´mskra´ framhaldssko´la: almennur hluti 1999 [National curriculum: General section 1999]. Reykjav´ık. http://brunnur. stjr.is/mrn/utgafuskra/utgafa.nsf/SearchResult.xsp?documentId F781B6FD851AF781B6FD851ADE2D002576F00058D4BB&action openDocument (Accessed 2013-03-15).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2004). The Icelandic National curriculum guide for upper secondary schools. General section. Reykjav´ık. http://brunnur.stjr.is/mrn/ utgafuskra/utgafa.nsf/SearchResult.xsp?documentId 7E5CF4036F2B0044002576F00058DC48 &action openDocument (Accessed 2012-12-30).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2011a). The Icelandic national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools: General section. Reykjav´ık. http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/education-in-iceland/Educational_system/ (Accessed 2012-12-30).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2011b). Skipun ´ı starfsho´p um ma´lefni framhaldssko´la [Nomination to a working group on upper secondary schools] http://www.ki. is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid 15733 (Accessed 2012-12-10).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2011c). Starfsho´pur um ma´lefni framhaldssko´lans. Dr¨og að niðurst¨oðum [Working group on upper secondary schools. Draft results]. http://ff.ki.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid 15064 (Accessed 2012-12-30).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2011d). Education at a glance 2011. Sky´rsla OECD um st¨oðu menntama´la [Press release about the OECD report Education at a glance]. http://www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/frettir/Frettatilkynningar/nr/6168 (Accessed 2013-15-01).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). (2012a). Learning is a working way. http:// www.menntamalaraduneyti.is/frettir/forsidugreinar/nr/6927 (Accessed 2012-11-20).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). N.d.a. Innritun ´ı framhaldssko´la [Registration to upper secondary schools]. http://www.menntagatt.is/innritun/ (Accessed 2012-10-30).
    • MESC (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). N.d.b. The educational system in Iceland. http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/education-in-iceland/Educational_system/ (Accessed 2012- 12-30).
    • Milquet, Jo¨elle. (2009). National strategy for well-being at work 2008 2012. An initiative from Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Employment. http://osha.europa.eu/en/organisations/EN%20Strategie%20nationale%20DEF%2024-11-08%20Belgium.pdf (Accessed 2012- 10-24).
    • Ministry of Finance. (2005). Salary contract between the Icelandic Teachers' Union and the State Treasury. http://www.fjarmalaraduneyti.is/starfsmenn-rikisins/kjarasamningar/2004-2008/ KI04/ (Accessed 2013-01-03).
    • Montgomery, Cameron and Rupp, Andr´e. A. (2005). A meta-analysis for exploring the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 28 (3): 458 486. http://www.csse-scee.ca/CJE/Articles/FullText/CJE28-3/CJE28-3-montgomery.pdf (Accessed 2013-10-15).
    • OECD. (2006). Education at a glance 2006. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ highereducationandadultlearning/educationataglance2006-home.htm (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2007). Education at a glance 2007. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/education/ highereducationandadultlearning/39313286.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2008). Education at a glance 2008. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/education/ skills-beyond-school/41284038.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2009). Education at a glance 2009. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/education/ skills-beyond-school/43636332.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2010). Education at a glance 2010. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/edu/skillsbeyond-school/45926093.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2011). Education at a glance 2011. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/edu/skillsbeyond-school/48631582.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • OECD. (2012). Education at a glance 2012. OECD indicators. http://www.oecd.org/edu/EAG% 202012_e-book_EN_200912.pdf (Accessed 2012-12-15).
    • Public Health Institute of Iceland and Administration of Occupational Safety and Health in Iceland. (2008). Advice on health promotion at work [Ra´ðleggingar um heilsueflingu ´a vinnust¨oðum]. Reykjav´ık: Author. http://www.vinnueftirlit.is/vinnueftirlit/upload/files/fraedsluefni/baeklingar/radleggingar_heilsuefling_vinnustodum.pdf (Accessed 2013-03-15).
    • Ragnarsdo´ttir, Guðru´n, Matth´ıasdo´ttir, A´sru´n and Sigurðsson, Jo´n Friðrik. (2010). Velferð kennara er lykillinn að ¨oflugum framhaldssko´la. [Teachers' well-being is the key to a potent upper secondary school]. Netla Veft´ımarit um uppeldi og menntun. http://netla.khi.is/ greinar/ritrynt.asp (Accessed 2013-11-15).
    • Ragnarsdo´ttir, Guðru´n. (2012). Aðferðafraeði. [Methodology] http://ff.ki.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx? itemid 14923 (Accessed 2013-10-26).
    • Reynisdo´ttir, A´rn´y Helga and Jo´hannesson, Ingo´lfur A´sgeir. (2013). Fleiri vindar bla´sa. Viðhorf reyndra framhaldssko´lakennara til breytinga ´ı sko´lastarfi 1986-2012. [Increasing changes and challenges: school development 1986-2012 in the eyes of experienced upper secondary school teachers]. Netla Veft´ımarit um uppeldi og menntun. http://netla.hi.is/greinar/2013/ryn/006. pdf (Accessed 2013-11-07).
    • Riggio, Ronald E. (2003). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
    • R´ıkisendurskoðun. (2011). Human resources of the state 2. The stage strategy and status in human resources [Mannauðsma´l r´ıkisins 2. Stefna stjo´rnvalda og staða mannauðsma´la r´ıkisins]. http://www.rikisend.is/fileadmin/media/skyrslur/111027_LOKAEINTAK.pdf (Accessed 2013-12-11).
    • Schwarezer, Ralf and Hallum, Suhair. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: mediation analyses. Applied Psychology: An International Review 57 (1): 152 171. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00359.x/pdf (Accessed 2013-10-21).
    • Statistics Iceland. (2013a). Educational personnel in schools at upper secondary level by sex, occupation, type and location of school 1999 2012. Education. http://www.statice.is/Statistics/ Education/Upper-secondary-schools (Accessed 2013-03-20).
    • Statistics Iceland. (2013b). Students by level, type of education, field of study, broad field of study and sex 1997 2011. Education. http://www.statice.is/Statistics/Education/Upper-secondaryschools (Accessed 2013-03-20).
    • Statistics Iceland. (2013c). Educational personnel in schools at upper secondary level by sex, age, position and education 1999 2012. Education. http://www.statice.is/Statistics/Education/ Upper-secondary-schools (Accessed 2013-03-20).
    • Statistics OECD. (2012). Teachers' salaries. http://www.oecd.org/statistics/ (Accessed 2012-12- 20).
    • Upper Secondary School Act no. 92/2008. Reykjav´ık: Althingi. http://www.althingi.is/lagas/137/ 2008092.html (Accessed 2013-10-15).
    • U¨ stu¨n, B. and Jakob, R. (2005). Re-defining 'health' 83:802. World Health Organization. http:// www.who.int/bulletin/bulletin_board/83/ustun11051/en/ (Accessed 2013-10-15).
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

    Title Year Similarity

    Acknowledgement

    201476
    76%

    Editorial introduction: Education in times of crisis

    201474
    74%

    Pedagogues’ Constructions of Gender Equality in Selected Swedish Preschools: A qualitative study

    201477
    77%

    School Leaders as Coupling Agents – Mediating Between External Demands and Internal Values

    201581
    81%

    Making a difference - in theory - in Sweden and the UK

    201474
    74%

    To pass the test: the timing of boys’ parallel positioning

    201576
    76%

    Inspections of Swedish schools: A critical reflection on intended effects, causal mechanisms and methods

    201474
    74%

    The Curriculum as a Governing Instrument – A Comparative Study of Finland and Norway

    201377
    77%

    The construction of the ideal pupil – teacher training as a discursive and governing practice

    201474
    74%

    Associating creativity, context, and experiential learning

    201575
    75%

    European education policy initiatives and teacher education curriculum reforms in Greece

    201579
    79%

    Developing teachers as agents of inclusion and social justice

    201575
    75%

    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity

    201475
    75%

    Social Positioning in Boys’ and Girls’ Oral Presentations

    201374
    74%

    Logics and ambivalence – professional dilemmas during implementation of an inclusive education practice

    201574
    74%

    The Individual Development Plan: supportive tool or mission impossible? Swedish teachers’ experiences of dilemmas in IDP practice

    201477
    77%

    To double a recipe – interdisciplinary teaching and learning of mathematical content knowledge in a home economics setting

    201477
    77%

    School leaders’ views on mentoring and newly qualified teachers’ needs.

    201474
    74%

    Students in higher education with reading and writing difficulties

    201574
    74%

    Historical Consciousness and Historical Media - A History Didactical Approach to Educational Media

    201474
    74%

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from