Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Doran, Anna Louise; Greenman, John; Verran, Joanna (2011)
Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Journal: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Languages: English
Types: Article
Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) produced by anaerobic microorganisms on the tongue are major contributors to oral malodour. Antimicrobial agents such as zinc salts may therefore indirectly reduce the production of VSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four zinc-containing sorbitol lozenge formulations (0.1-0.5% zinc gluconate) on oral malodour (‘morning breath’) by breath and tongue flora analysis on 24 healthy volunteers. Chlorhexidine (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) mouthwash was used as positive control and sorbitol lozenges as negative control. Breath odour was evaluated by a Halimeter† and organoleptic readings, and tongue flora by culture of oral microorganisms before, and at intervals over a 60 min period after, treatment. All treatments were effective in reducing sulphides in breath odour but chlorhexidine and 0.5% zinc lozenges produced the greatest reduction. All treatments produced a significant decrease (p<0.001) in bacterial counts 15 min post treatment, with chlorhexidine being most effective (p<0.05). Counts on fastidious anaerobic agar containing vancomycin correlated positively with Halimeter† readings. The combination of methods used provided a broader approach to the assessment of breath odour.Key words: oral malodour, volatile sulphur compounds, zinc, chlorhexidine, oral bacteria
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Yaegaki K, Suetaka T. The effect of zinc chloride mouthwash on the production of oral malodour, the degradations of salivary cellular elements and proteins. Journal of Dental Health. 1989;/39:/377 86.
    • 2. Ro¬® lla G, Jonski G, Young A. The significance of the source of zinc and its anti-VSC effect. Int Dent J. 2002;/52:/233 5.
    • 3. Ng W, Tonzetich J. Effect of hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan on the permeability of oral mucosa. J Dent Res. 1984;/63:/994 7.
    • 4. Pratten J, Pasu M, Jackson G, Flanagan A, Wilson M. Modelling oral malodour in a longitudinal study. Arch Oral Biol. 2003;/48:/737 43.
    • 5. Kleinberg I, Codipilly M. Modelling of the oral malodour system and methods of analysis. Quintessence Int. 1999;/30:/ 357 69.
    • 6. Rosenberg M, Gelernter I, Barki M, Bar-Ness R. Day long reduction of oral malodour by a two phase oil:water mouthrinse as compared to chlorhexidine and placebo rinses. J Periodontol. 1992;/63:/39 43.
    • 7. Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. Measurement of oral malodour: current methods and future prospects. J Periodontol. 1992;/63:/776 82.
    • 8. El-Maaytah MA, Hartley MG, Greenman J, Porter SR, Scully CM. Relationship of the salivary incubation test with oral malodour levels. In: van Steenberghe D, Rosenberg M. editors. Bad breath: a multidisciplinary approach. Leuven: Leuven University Press; 1996. p. 135 42.
    • 9. Murata T, Yamaga T, Iida T, Miyazaki H, Yaegaki K. Classification and examination of halitosis. Int Dent J. 2002;/ 52:/181 6.
    • 10. Rosenberg M, Kulkarni GV, Bosy A. Reproducibility and sensitivity of oral malodour measurements with a portable sulphide monitor. J Dent Res. 1991;/70:/1436 40.
    • 11. Marsh P, Martin M. Oral microbiology, 3rd edn. London: Chapman and Hall; 1992.
    • 12. Greenman J. Microbial aetiology of halitosis. In: Newman HN, Wilson M. editors. Dental plaque revisited; oral biofilms in health disease. Cardiff: Bioline; 1999. p. 419 42.
    • 13. Hartley G, McKenzie C, Greenman J, El-Maaytah MA, Scully C, Porter S. Tongue microbiota and malodour; effects of metronidazole mouthrinse on tongue microbiota and breath odour. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 1999;/11:/226 33.
    • 14. Addy M, Jenkins S, Newcombe RG. The effect of some chlorhexidine-containing mouthrinses on salivary bacterial counts. J Clin Periodontol. 1991;/18:/90 3.
    • 15. Jenkins S, Addy M, Wade W, Newcombe RG. The magnitude and duration of some mouthrinse products on salivary bacterial accounts. J Clin Periodont. 1994;/21:/397 401.
    • 16. Hartley MG, El-Maytaah MA, McKenzie C, Greenman J. The tongue microbiota of low odorous and malodorous individuals. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 1996;/9:/215 23.
    • 17. Coykendall AL. A method to quantitate the tongue flora. J Dent Res 1995;74:127 (abstract).
    • 18. Verran J, Doran AL, Smith C. Denture stomatitis, oral malodour and oral biofilm ecology. In: Gilbert P, Alison D, Brading M, Verran J, Walker J. editors. Biofilm community interactions: chance or necessity. Cardiff: BioLine; 2001. p. 131 40.
    • 19. Brunette DM. Introduction to the proceedings of the fifth international conference on breath odour research. Int Dent J. 2002;/52:/177 80.
    • 20. Awano S, Gohara K, Kurihara E, Ansai T, Takehara T. The relationship between the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in saliva and halitosis. Int Dent J. 2002;/52(Suppl 3):/ 212 6.
    • 21. De Boever EH, Loesche WJ. Assessing the contribution of anaerobic microflora of the tongue to oral malodour. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995;/126:/1384 93.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from