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Seddon, S. V.; Krishna, M.; Davies, H. A.; Borriello, S. P. (2011)
Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Journal: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
A known toxigenic highly virulent strain of Clostridium difficile was cultivated in various media and the ability of the bacterium to express several known and putative virulence factors investigated. Sonicated cells and culture supernatants were assayed for the following enzymes: chondroitin-4-sulphatase, hyaluronate lyase, collagenase, collagenaselike peptidase, trypsin, subtilisin, kallikrein and dipeptidyl peptidase. Culture supernatants were further tested for any cytopathic effect and haemagglutination activity. Capsule and fimbriae presence was investigated using electron microscopy on cells grown on solidified media. Expression of these known and putative virulence factors was depressed following growth in nutritionally limited media. The addition of peptide-rich protein hydrolysates to such media reversed this trend. Iron limitation had no stimulatory effect. These data suggest that competition for nutrients within the gut may explain, in part, the poor ability of C. difficile to colonise in the presence ofa normal flora. Furthermore, it is possible that the availability of specific nutrients may affect the expression of certain virulence determinants.Keywords: C. difficile; Virulence expression; Iron limitation; Nutritional requirements.
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    • reduction in competition for nutrients that C. d i f i - 8. Burdon DW. (1984). Spectrum of disease. In: cile has access to a wide selection of nutrients Borriello SP (ed) Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea enabling it to not only proliferate but to fully and Colitis. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp. 9-25.
    • express its virulence. 9. Davies HA, Borriello SP. (1990). Detection of capThere is good evidence that varying the amount sule in strains of Clostridium dificile of varying virulence and toxigenicity. Microbial Pathogenesis 9, of dietary protein in antibiotic pretreated hamsters I 4 1- 146.
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    • is of interest in this respect that low molecular 11. George RH, Symonds JM, Dimock F, Brown JD, weight proteins (less than 10 kDa) significantly Arabi Y ,Shinagawa N, Keighley MRB, Alexanderincrease death rates when used to supplement a low Williams J, Burdon DW. (1978). Identification of protein diet, and that casein also increases the rate Clostridium dificile as acause of pseudomembranous colitis. British Medical Journal 1,695.
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