Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Inoue, Hisayuki Yoshikawa; Ishii, Maso; Matsueda, Hidekadzu; Saito, Shu; Midorikawa, Takashi; Nemoto, Kazuhiro (2011)
Publisher: Tellus B
Journal: Tellus B
Languages: English
Types: Article
During 1968 to 72, scientists of the Meteorological Research Institute/Japan Meteorological Agency measured CO2 in the surface seawater and overlying air in the Pacific Ocean quasicontinuously to examine CO2 exchange between the sea and the atmosphere. From the data remaining in our laboratory from that time, we re-evaluated the partial pressure of CO2 in surface seawater (pCOs2) by taking into account pressure broadening effects due to the use of CO2-in-N2 standards, the use of chemical desiccant (Mg(ClO4)2), calibration using background air data, seawater temperature rise between the equilibrator and sea surface, the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale, and differences in pressure during the oceanic CO2 measurements from those of standards and background air in the nondispersive infra-red gas analyser cell. The overall uncertainty of pCOs2 measurements for the cruises from 1968 to 1970 was estimated to be less than 3.6 μatm, which allowed us to evaluate temporal variations in the carbonate system over a few decades, but uncertainty was higher (> 10 μatm) for the cruise from 1971 to 1972 because of serious malfunctions of the system. The re-evaluated pCOs2 data from 1968 to 1970 exhibit patterns similar to those observed at the same place and time of year (within 30 days) in 1982/83, 1988, 1995 and 1996, but compared with levels in the 1980s and 1990s the pCOs2 level was clearly lower in the wide area of the Pacific except south of the Subtropical Front (STF; 47°S) in the Australian sector. The observed pCOs2 increased by 34 ± 5 μatm (n = 133) for the area 7°N to 35°N, 138°E to 147°E from February 1969 to February 1995, 29 ± 5 μatm (n = 247) for the area 9°N to 35°N, 138°E to 165°E from February 1970 to February/March 1996, 26 ± 7 μatm (n = 224) for the area 29°N to 51°N, 170°W from April 1970 to April 1988, and 41 ± 9 μatm (n = 165) for the area 10°S to 45°S, 148°E to 166°E from January/February 1969 to January/February 1995. In the northern subtropics (7°N to 35°N, 138°E to 147°E), we estimated the long-term increase (35 ± 6 μatm, n= 133) after removing seasonal variations that were obtained from the pCOs2-sea surface temperature (SST) relationship. Observed and seasonally adjusted increases were nearly equal to those of the partial pressure of CO2 in the air (1.4 μatm yr−1) over the same time intervals. South of the STF, pCOs2 increase as found in the subtropics was not detected, mostly due to the large variability of pCOs2 (250 to 380 μatm in 1968/69) on small spatial scales. The average pCOs2 south of the STF showed large variations on time scales of months and years that affect the estimation of the growth rate of atmospheric CO2.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.t01-3-00007.x
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Bingham, F. M. 1992. Formation and spreading of subtropical mode water in the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11,177-11,189.
    • Broecker, W. S., Peng, T., O¨stlund, G. and Stuiver, M. 1985. The distribution of bomb radiocarbon in the ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 6953-6970.
    • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1996. Climate change 1995. T he science of climate change. Contribution of working group I to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell ). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Conway, T. J., Tans, P. P., Waterman, L. S., Thoning, K. W., Kitzis, D. R., Masarie, K. A. and Zhang, N. 1994. Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831-22,855.
    • Copin-Montegut, C. 1988. A new formula for the eVect of temperature on the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater. Mar. Chem. 25, 29-37.
    • Copin-Montegut, C. 1989. Corrigendum. Mar. Chem. 27, 143-144.
    • Dickson, A. G. 1994. The Plastic Menagerie: CO2 Teams Compare Seagoing Systems. US JGOFS News. 5, no. 4, 5.
    • DOE. 1994. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide in sea water; version 2 (eds. A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet). ORNL/ CDIAC-74. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
    • Feely, R. A., Gammon, R. H., Taft, B. A., Pullen, P. E., Waterman, L. S., Conway, T. J., Gendron, J. F. and Wisegarver, D. P. 1987. Distribution of chemical tracers in the eastern equatorial Pacific during and after the 1982-83 El Ni n˜o/Southern Oscillation Event. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 6545-6558.
    • Feely, R. A., Wanninkhof, R., Cosca, C. E., Murphy, P. P., Lamb, M. F. and Steckey, M. D. 1995. CO2 distributions in the equatorial Pacific during the 1991-1992 ENSO event. Deep-Sea Res. 42, 365-386.
    • Francey, R. J., Tans, P. P., Allison, C. E., Enting, I. G., White, J. W. C. and Trolier, M. 1995. Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982. Nature 373, 326-330.
    • Fushimi, K. 1987. Variation of carbon dioxide partial pressure in the western North Pacific surface water during the 1982/83 El Nin˜ o Event. T ellus 39B, 214-227.
    • Gordon, A. L. 1972. Introduction: Physical oceanography of the Southeast Indian Ocean. In: Antarctic Oceanology II, T he Australian-New Zealand Sector. Antarctic Res. Ser. 19 (ed. D. E. Hayes). AGU. Washington, D.C., 3-9.
    • Gordon, L. I. and Jones, L. B. 1973. The eVect of temperature on carbon dioxide partial pressure in seawater. Mar. Chem. 1, 317-322.
    • Goyet, C. and Peltzer, E. T. 1994. Comparison of the August-September 1991 and 1979 surface partial pressure of CO2 distribution in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean near 150°W. Mar. Chem. 45, 257-266.
    • Goyet, C., Millero, F. J., Poisson, A. and Shafer, D. K. 1993. Temperature dependence of CO2 fugacity in seawater. Mar. Chem. 44, 205-219.
    • Inoue, H. and Sugimura, Y. 1988. Distribution and variations of oceanic carbon dioxide in the western North Pacific, eastern Indian, and Southern Ocean south of Australia. T ellus 40B, 308-320.
    • Inoue, Y. H. and Sugimura, Y. 1992. Variations and distributions of CO2 in and over the equatorial Pacific during the period from the 1986/88 El Nin˜ o event to the 1988/89 La Ni n˜a event. T ellus 44B, 1-22.
    • Inoue, Y. H., Matsueda, H., Ishii, M., Fushimi, K., Hirota, M., Asanuma, I. and Takasugi, Y. 1995. Longterm trend of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( pCO2) in surface waters of the western North Pacific, 1984-1993. T ellus 47B, 391-413.
    • Inoue, Y. H., Ishii, M., Matsueda, H., Aoyama, M. and Asanuma, I. 1996. Changes in longitudinal distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in the central and western equatorial Pacific, west of 160°W. Geophys. Res. L ett. 23, 1781-1784.
    • Inoue, H. Y. 1999. CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. Carbon cycle studies of the Meteorological Research Institute since 1968. In: Dynamics and characterization of marine organic matter (eds. N. Handa, E. Tanoue and T. Hama). TerraPub, Tokyo, in press.
    • Kawai, H. 1972. Hydrography of the Kuroshio Extension. In: Kuroshio (eds. H. Stommel and K. Yoshida). University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 235-352.
    • Ishii, M. and Inoue, H. Y. 1995. Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the central and western equatorial Pacific in 1990. T ellus 47B, 447-460.
    • Keeling, C. D., Bacastow, R. B., Carter, A. F., Piper, S. C., Whorf, T. P., Heimann, M., Mook, W. G. and RoeloVzen, H. 1989. A three-dimensional mode of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: (1) Analysis of observational data. In: Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and western Americas (ed. D. Peterson). AGU Geophysical Monograph. Washington D.C., 165-236.
    • Keeling, C. D., Whorf, T. P., Wahlen, M. and van der Plicht, J. 1995. Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature 375, 666-670.
    • Keeling, C. D., Chin, J. F. S. and Whorf, T. P. 1996. Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature 382, 146-149.
    • Ko¨ rtzinger, A., Mintrop, L. and Duinker, J. 1996. The floating dripstone cave: CO2 teams compare underway systems. US JGOFS NEW S 7, no. 4, 14-15.
    • Millero, F. J. 1995. Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 59, 661-677.
    • Miyake, Y. and Sugimura, Y. 1969. Carbon dioxide in the surface water and the atmosphere in the Pacific, the Indian and the Antarctic Ocean areas. Rec. Oceanogr. W ks. Japan 10, 23-28.
    • Miyake, Y., Sugimura, Y. and Saruhashi, K. 1974. The carbon dioxide content in the surface water in the Pacific Ocean. Rec. Oceanogr. W ks. Japan 12, 45-52.
    • Murphy, P. P., Kelly, K. C., Feely, R. A. and Gammon, R. H. 1994. Carbon dioxide concentrations in surface water and the atmosphere: PMEL cruises 1986-1989. NOAA T echnical Memorandum ERL PMEL -101 (NTIS DE96-009659), 1-185.
    • Murphy, P. P., Harrison, D. E., Feely, R. A., Takahasi, T., Weiss, R. F. and Gammon, R. H. 1998. Variability of DpCO2 in the subarctic North Pacific. A comparison of results from four expeditions. T ellus 50B, 185-204.
    • Oceanographic Data of KH68-4. 1970. Oceanographic Data of KH68-4 (Southern Cross Cruise) of the Hakuho Maru. Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
    • Poisson, A., Metzl, N., Brunet, C., Schauer, B., Bres, B., Ruiz-Pino, D. and Louanchi, F. 1993. Variability of sources and sinks of CO2 in the western Indian and Southern Oceans during the year 1991. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,759-22,778.
    • Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH68-4, 1970 (ed. Y. Horibe). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
    • Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH70-1, 1971 (ed. Y. Horibe). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
    • Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH70-2, 1971 (ed. Y. Horibe). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo, Tokyo.
    • Robertson, J. E. and Watson, A. J. 1995. A summer-time sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean between 88°W and 80°E. Deep-Sea Res. 42, 1081-1091.
    • Roden, G. I., Taft, B. A. and Ebbesmeyer, C. C. 1982. Oceanographic aspects of the Emperor seamounts region. J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9537-9552.
    • Stephens, M. P., Samuels, G., Olson, D. B., Fine, R. A. and Takahashi, T. 1995. Sea-air flux of CO2 in the North Pacific using shipboard and satellite data. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,571-13,583.
    • Suga, T. and Hanawa, K. 1990. The mixed-layer climatology in the northwestern part of the North Pacific subtropical gyre and the formation area of Subtropical Mode Water. J. Marine Res. 48, 543-566.
    • Svedrup, H. U., Johnson, M. W. and Fleming, R. H. 1949. T he oceans. T heir physics, chemistry, and general biology. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliVs, N.J.
    • Tanaka, M., Nakazawa, T. and Aoki, S. 1987. Time and space variations of tropospheric carbon dioxide over Japan. T ellus 39B, 3-12.
    • Takahashi, T., Olafsson, J., Goddard, J. G., Chipman, D. W. and Sutherland, S. C. 1993. Seasonal variation of CO2 and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: a comparative study. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 843-878.
    • Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R. A., Chen, H., Cosca, C. and Murphy, P. P. 1996. Surface water f CO2 in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the 1992-1993 El Ni n˜o. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,333-16,343.
    • Weiss, R. F., Jahnke, R. A. and Keeling, C. D. 1982. Seasonal eVects of temperature and salinity on the partial pressure of CO2 in sea water. Nature 300, 511-513.
    • Wessel, P. and Smith, W. H. F. 1991. Free software helps map and display data. EOS T rans. AGU 72, 445-446.
    • Wong, C. S., Chan, Y.-H., Page, J. S., Smith, G. E., Bellegay, R. D. and Iseki, K. 1995. Geographical, seasonal and interannual variations of air-sea CO2 exchange in the subtropical Pacific waters during 1983-1988 (I). Variabilities of oceanic f CO2. T ellus 47B, 414-430.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from