Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Croxall, John P.; Briggs, Dirk R. (1991)
Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Journal: Polar Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
Seabirds of high latitudes in the North and South Atlantic (chiefly penguins, Procellariformes, alcids, shags, Gannet and Kittiwake) are compared (on absolute and energy-, mass- and time-specific scaled bases) in terms of the rate at which they supply energy to their offspring, the rate of offspring growth, and the duration of the dependence (fledging) period. For a smaller suite of species, time and energy budgets during complete foraging cycles (including time ashore) and while at sea are compared. The broad-scale comparisons show storm petrels to have consistently low provisioning and growth rates, and Kittiwakes, Gannets, shags and some penguins to have consistently high rates. Penguins (except the Gentoo Penguin) and albatrosses spend most of a foraging cycle at sea; murres, shags, gannet and kittiwake spend at least half the time ashore, guarding their offspring. Energy budgets are much more similar, because of the disproportionate cost of at-sea activities, although the time spent flying, swimming, resting, and diving varies widely between species and is often difficult to interpret in terms of active foraging. Other apparent anomalies include the large amount of time Common Murres spend resting at sea and the high resting and low flight metabolic rates of kittiwakes and gannets. Assessments of foraging performance need to be more broadly based than hitherto and to take account of both physical constraints and ecological contexts. Further development of these approaches, especially critical interspecies comparisons, requires better discrimination of activities at sea, measurement of activity-specific energy costs and more accurate data on provisioning rates to offspring, particularly of North Atlantic species, notably Gannets and shags.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adams, N. J. & Brown, C. R. 1984: Metabolic rates of subAntarctic Procellariiformes: a comparative study. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77A. 169-173.
    • Adams, N. J.. Brown, C. R. & Nagy, K. A. 1986: Energy expenditure of free-ranging Wandering Albatrosses Diomedea exulans Physiol. 2001.59. 583-591.
    • Barrett, R. T. & Runde, 0. J. 1980: Growth and survival of nestling Kittiwakes in Norway. Omis Scand. 11, 226235.
    • Bernstein, N. P. & Maxson. S. J. 1984: Sexually distinct daily activity patterns of Blue-eyed Shags in Antarctica. Condor 86, 151-156.
    • Bernstein, N. P. & Maxson, S. J. 1985: Reproductive energetics of Blue-eyed Shags in Antarctica. Wilson Bull. 97, 450-462.
    • Birt-Friesen, V. L., Montevecchi, W. A., Cairns, D. K. & Macko, S. A. 1989: Activity-specific metabolic rates of freeliving Northern Gannets and other seabirds. Ecology 70. 357-367.
    • Boyd, I. L. & Croxall, J. P. 1992: Diving behaviour of lactating Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at South Georgia. Canadian Journal of Zoology. In press.
    • Brooke, M de L. 1990: The Manx Shearwater. T. D. & A. Poyser & Academic Press, London.
    • Brown, C. R. & Adams. N. J. 1984: Basal metabolic rate and energy cost of incubation in the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans. Condor 86, 182-186.
    • Burger, A. E & Piatt, J. L. 1990: Flexible time budgets in breeding Common Murres: buffers against variable prey abundance. Stud. Avian. Biol. 14, 71-83.
    • Cairns, D. K., Bredin, K. A,, & Montevecchi, W. A. 1987: Activity budgets and foraging ranges of breeding Common Murres. Auk 104,216224.
    • Cairns, D. K., Montevecchi, W. A., Birt-Friesen, V. L. & Macko, S. A. 1990: Energy expenditures, activity budgets, and prey harvest of breeding Common Murres. Stud. Aoian Biol. 14. 84-92.
    • Costa, D. P. & Prince, P. A. 1987: Foraging energetics of Greyheaded Albatrosses Diomedea chrysostoma at Bird Island, South Georgia. fbis 129, 190-196.
    • Costa, D. P., Croxall, J . P. & Duck, C. 1989: Foraging energetics of Antarctic Fur Seals in relation to changes in prey availability. Ecology 70, 596-606.
    • Cramp, S. & Simmons, K. E. L. 1977: The birds ofthe Western Palearctic. 1. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
    • Cramp, S. & Simmons, K. E. L. 1983: The birds ofthe Western Palearctic, 3. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
    • Croxall, J. P. 1984: Seabirds. Pp. 533-616 in Laws, R.M.(ed.): Antarctic ecology, 2. Academic Press, London.
    • Croxall, J . P. & Gaston, A. J. 1988: Patterns of reproduction in high latitude northern and southern hemisphere seabirds. Pp. 1176-1194 in Ovellett, H. (ed.): Acta X f X Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. Congress. Univ. Ottawa Press, Ottawa.
    • Croxall, J. P., Everson, I . , Kooyman, G . L., Ricketts. C. & Davis, R. W.1985: Fur seal diving behaviour in relation to vertical distribution of krill. 1. Anim. Ecol. 54, 1-8.
    • Croxall, J. P., Hill, H. J., Lidstone-Scott, R., O'Connell, M. J. & Prince, P. A. 1988a: Food and feeding ecology of Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus at South Georgia. 1. Zool. Lond. 216,83-102.
    • Croxall, J. P., McCann, T. S., Prince. P. A. & Rothery, P. 1988b: Reproductive performance of seabirds and seals at South Georgia and Signy Island, South Orkney Islands 1976-1986: Implications for Southern ocean monitoring studies. Pp. 261-285 in Sahrhage, D. (ed.): Antarctic Ocean and Resources Variability. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
    • Croxall, J . P., Naito, Y., Kato, A,, Rothery, P. & Briggs. D. R. 1991: Diving patterns and performance in the Antarctic Blue-eyed Shag Phalacrocorax atriceps 1. Zool. Lond. 225, 177-199.
    • Croxall. J . P., Briggs. D. R., Kato, A,. Naito. Y..Watanuki. Y. & Williams, T. D. 1992: Diving pattern and performance in the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus. Journal of Zoology. In press.
    • Davis, R. W.. Croxall, J. P. & OConnell. M. J. 1989: The reproductive energetics of Gentoo and Macaroni Penguins at South Georgia. 1. Anim. Ecol. 58, 59-74.
    • Drent, R. H. & Daan, S. 1980 The prudent parent: energetic adjustments in avian breeding. Ardea 68, 225-252.
    • Ellis, H. I. 1984: Energetics of free-ranging seabirds. Pp. 204-234 in Whittow, G. C. & Rahn, H. (eds.): Seabird energetics. Plenum, New York.
    • Furness, R. W. & Todd, C. M. 1984: Diets and feeding of Fulmars Fulmarus glacialis during the breeding season: a comparison between St Kilda and Shetland colonies. Ibis 126, 379-387.
    • Gabrielsen, G. W., Mehlum, F. & Nagy, K. A. 1987: Daily energy expenditure and energy utilisation of free-ranging Black-legged Kittiwakes. Condor 89, 126132.
    • Gabrielsen, G. W. & Mehlum, F. 1989: Kittiwake activity monitored by telemetry. Pp. 421-429 in Amlaner, C. J. (ed.): Biotelemetry X , Proc Tenth Int. Symp. Biotelemetry. Univ. Arkansas Press, Fayetteville & London.
    • Gabrielsen, G. W., Mehlum, F. & Karlsen. H. E. 1988: Thermoregulation in four species of arctic seabirds. 1. Comp. Physiol. Bf57, 703-708.
    • Galbraith, H. 1983: The diet and feeding ecology of breeding Kittiwakes Rissa tridacryla. Bird Study 30, 109-120.
    • Gales, R. & Green, B. 1990: The annual energetics cycle of Little Penguins Eudyptula minor. Ecology 71, 2297-2312.
    • Gales, R., Williams, C. & Ritz, D. 1990: Foraging behaviour of the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor: initial results and assessment of instrument effect. J . Zool. Lond. 220, 61-85.
    • Green, B. & Brothers, N. 1989: Water and sodium turnover and estimated food consumption rates in free-living Fairy Prions Pachyptila turtur and Common Diving-petrels Pelecanoides urinatrir. Physiol. 2001.62, 702-715.
    • Hunter, S. 1983: The food and feeding ecology of the giant petrels Macronectes halli and M . giganteus at South Georgia. J . Zool. Lond. 200, 521-538.
    • Kooyman, G . L., Davis, R. W.& Croxall, J. P. 1986: Diving behaviour of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella. Pp. 115-125 in Gentry, R. L. & Kooyman, G. L. (eds.): Fur Seals: maternalstrategies on land and at sea. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton.
    • Kooyman, G. L., Cherel, Y.,Le Maho. Y.. Croxall, J. P., Thorson, P. H., Ridoux, V.& Kooyman, C. A. 1992: Diving behavior and energetics during foraging cycles in king penguins. Ecological Monograph. 62. 14s.163.
    • Lack, D. 1968. Ecological aduptarions for breeding in birds. Methuen, London.
    • Montevecchi, W. A . & Porter. J . M. 1980: Parental investments by seabirds at the breeding area with emphasis on Northern Gannets, M o r w bassanus. Pp. 32S365 in Burger. J.. Olla, B. L. & Winn. H. E. (eds.): Behauiour of marine animab, IV. Plenum, New York.
    • Nagy. K. A . 1987: Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecol. Monogr. 57, 111-128.
    • Nagy, K. A . , Siegfried, W. R . & Wilson, R . P. 1984: Energy utilisation by free-ranging Jackass Penguins, Spheniscw demersrrr. Ecology 65. 1618-1655.
    • Nelson. J. B. 1978: The Sulidae. Oxford Univ. Press, Edinburgh.
    • Nettleship, D. N. & Birkhead.T. R . 1985: The Arlanfic Afcidae. Academic Press, Orlando.
    • Obst, B. S.. Nagy, K. A . & Ricklefs, R. E. 1987: Energy utilization in Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanires oceanicw). Physiol. Zool. 60,2CO-210.
    • Pennycuick. C . J . 1987a: Flight of auks (Alcidae) and other northern seabirds compared with southern Procellariiformes: ornithodolite observations. J . Exp. Biol. 128, 335347.
    • Pennycuick, C. J. 1987b: Flight of seabirds. Pp. 43412 in Croxall, J. P . (ed.): Seubirds feeding ecology and role in marine ecosystem. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge.
    • Pennycuick. C. J . 1989: Bird Pighr performance. A pracncol calculation manual. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
    • Pennycuick, C. J . , Croxall. J . P. & Prince, P. A. 1984: Scaling of foraging radius and growth rate in petrels and albatrosses (Procellariiformes). Ornis Scand. 15, 145-154.
    • Prince, P. A . & Francis, M. D . 1984: Activity budgets of foraging Grey-headed Albatrosses. Condor 8 6 , 297-300.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from